Archaeologists found out that their houses are one or two floors high and made of baked bricks. Each house was designed to be surrounded by an open courtyard and have running waters with a fountain for drinking and bathing which are connected to the pipes with running water to carry off the waste to a sewer under their street. It was thought that this civilization was composed of a small number of towns, but it was later found out that there is an extension of the Indus River that found a large number of similar houses and they concluded that the Indus Valley civilization was a very large
As we all know that Harappan civilization was a Bronze Age dated from 3300 to 1300 BCE mostly situated in North-West Indian subcontinent and in some parts of North-East Afghanistan. Majority of its sites are found in India and the largest concentration being along the Valley of Saraswati River and its tributary Drisadvati. This civilization, though being one of the oldest showed remarkable urban characteristics relevant to present day urban characteristics and was well known to the world for this. It’s known for its planned cities, drainage system and fire brick. Another remarkable aspect of Harappan culture was its craftsmanship and cottage industry which made it the wealthiest civilization in the world.
It has left behind some of the most impressive buildings of the ancient world. Most of the buildings in Ancient Egypt were built out of stone. These include the important dwellings such as temples, pyramids, and statues which were built of a mixture of limestone and granite. These are the structures that have survived to this day. The normal houses were built of Nile baked sun bricks.
Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization was one of the modern Civilization of that time with many evidences of being it an urban one with many urban centers like Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Lothal, Dholavira etc. The early world have seen the best drainage system at the times of Harrapans. Every house had both vertical and horizontal drains. The stone covered drains (stones can be removed in order to clean them) had a brickwork preventing the leaking of unhygienic water. Also, in order to prevent washing away of solid wastes along with dirty water, drains were provided with wooden screens.
Some Bakelite resins are oil soluble because of which these resins are used for paint and oil varnishing. The result so obtained has excellent properties like durability, flexibility and resistant against alkalis and weak acids. Cements which are made from Bakelite are used for bonding and adhesion. The Bakelite cement exists in solid and liquid form. In brush bristles setting, Bakelite liquid cement is used.
They used clay not only to make pots but also to make bronze sculptures. They would start with a clay shape and put wax on the outside of the clay, then they would layer more clay on top of the wax. Next they would fire the sculpture to melt the wax and pour the bronze into the clay mold that was left over. Lastly they would break the clay and be left with the bronze statue. Many of these are probably statues of gods and kings.
We have a plethora of examples throughout the world; the greatest example being the Egyptian Hieroglyphs from around 3200 BC. According to Historyworld.net, “a German archaeologist in 1988, Günter Dreyer, unearths at Abydos, on the Nile in central Egypt, small bone and ivory tablets recording in early hieroglyphic form the items delivered to a temple, mainly linen and oil. These fragments have been carbon-dated to between 3300 and 3200
Singapore Environment council (SEC) Apollo paints pvt ltd is a 100 crore paint manufacturing company in the Small and Medium Enterprise sector. In Bangalore city Apollo manufacturing plants are located and have recently added massive capacity expansion in their new 2.5 acre plant at Dabaspet in the outskirts of Bangalore. Apollo paints are mainly focus on architectural coating it is also called as decorative coatings. The company started its business in 1982 by manufacturing the cement paints and in 1993 onwards they expanded their business by producing various products in architectural coating such as distemper, emulsion and new generation so as to make available in the
Pottery. From ancient times graphic design has been used for decoration of pottery and ceramics. In the period 6500–5500 BC, the farming society of Halalf in northern Mesopotamia and Syria produced pottery that is among the finest in the Near East. The Halaf potters used different sources of clay from their neighbours and created interesting pottery. African art.
During this time period, Egyptians had started building pyramids around the start of the Mature Harappan Phase and the ancient Sumerians had become more civilized around 3000 BCE (Khan academy, Indus River Valley Civilizations). Around the mid-Mature Harappan Phase, Sargon the Great ruled the Akkadian Empire. Close to the Late Harappan Phase was the rule of Hammurabi in the Babylonian Empire. Like the Indus Valley Civilization, these empires and other civilizations started small, close to rivers. Harappans had two great geographical advantages.