Dan Lawler Fall – 2015 Eric Foner, the author of our textbook, “Give Me Liberty!” calls the Industrial Revolution, urbanization and accompanying economic expansion of American society in the early nineteenth century a “market revolution”. There are many significant changes and developments that make up this revolution, a few of them being the creation of canals, steamboats, roads and the cotton gin. Foner also describes how the revolution affected differently the north and the south.
Cotton became the most lucrative U.S. export and master in Maryland, Virginia, and other regions began to support by selling their slaves because the would sell their
daily the demand was growing for labor. Immigrants were coming from all over by the 1800’s, Africa, England, and Scottland to name a few. Almost all the immigrants from Africa were enslaved upon arrival to the colonies. The second major reason for the increased growth was natural increase by reproduction.
Modern imperialism resulted in an economic shift towards more possible imports. Increased trade massively expanded what European countries could consume. For example, increased access to Indian trade provided Britain with new silk and spices. As a whole, European powers secured access to goods like silver, rubber, gold, diamonds, and tea. This also applied to natural resources and agriculture; for instance, imperialism allowed Britain to replace their rainforests with tea plantations.
The invention of the cotton gin created a market for cotton that the planters could hardly supply without cheap labor. Almost every available acre was brought under cotton culture as the small farmers were driven into the West. The demand for slaves to work the fields was enormous. This led to the development of the plantation system of the Far South and Southwest, where masters were near constantly extending their holdings of lands and slaves. Efforts to form new slave states were common, most prominent of these efforts was that to annex Texas.
Slavery in the Southern United States was a system by which the white man ruled the black man. Slavery in the United States draws its roots back to the colonial era with the African slave trade. What makes slavery different in the United States than in the Caribbean was the fact that the United States developed a slave population capable of reproduction and even growth. When the African Slave trade ended, the slave population was able to maintain and grow in size. Slavery would continue to thrive in the southern United States due largely to the booming cotton industry which required a large work force to cultivate the crop.
Image Ownership: Public Domain The Haitian Revolution has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony. The Haitian Revolution, however, was much more complex, consisting of several revolutions going on simultaneously.
The Atlantic Economy was a part of the major theme of this century which was a shift in economic focus, ecological shift and also a power shift. This was fueled by the demand of a growing European population. The Triangular Trade also referred to as the Atlantic Slave Trade occurred in three interrelated regions that traded with each other. Europe would send manufactured goods to Africa, who then sent slaves to the Americas, who then sent sugar, tobacco, and cotton back to Europe. These voyages and explorations helped Europe acquire territories in Africa and the Americas.
Significant fact: One person could sit and turn the handle of the cotton gin and do the work of 50 workers. 2. One significant cause of the Industrial Revolution: Improved technology such as the steam engine, the cotton gin, and the spinning jenny contributed greatly to the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, living conditions improved and the demand for certain goods grew. Then, causing a larger population since the economy was doing well.
With the increasing demand for cotton cloth, tremendous efforts were made to increase its productivity. For centuries, the spinning and weaving of cotton were done by hand and these stages of cotton-cloth production were lengthy. John Kay, in 1733, invented the fly shuttle, which, “operated by pulling a cord that drove the shuttle to either side, freeing one hand of the weaver to press home the weft.” This sped up weaving cotton into cloth, as one man could do the work of two men.
Economic Change in America Change is relevant within every time period, however, very substantial changes took place in the Americas following the War of 1812. Future success of the American society was to be dictated by the support the federal government supplied to domestic manufacturing and infrastructure to make drastic improvements economically. The imposition of high tariffs, advancements in transportation and the development of the cotton gin are among the most important changes made in the United States during this time.
“Necessity is the mother of all invention.” Cotton labor conducted by slaves was arduous and took long periods of time. A necessity for a faster way to separate the cotton seeds from the fiber evolved because it would take slaves laborious hours to created small amounts of cotton. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and patented it a year later which mechanized the cotton process. This had the benefit of lowering the price of cotton production and removing slaves from that part of the process.