These routines remain unaware since it is based on universal and unreflected culturally racist ideas (Downing & Husband 2005). Reasons to discrimination are individual and traditional behaviors, habits that are made from society structures, but also direct form such as individual discrimination. That means the function of discrimination is an exchange ratio between the different levels of societal structures, institutional fixings and the everyday life and media. All levels affect each other and maintain the discrimination. Discrimination in everyday life can appear in things such as insults, harassment, violence, jokes, exclusion and non-perceptions.
Just as we live in a world where even visas have varying values, discrimination has become an undeniable reality – hindrances to playful world traveling. If we cannot identify with anyone outside of our world, it becomes easier to abuse and oppress them because of a lack of love (seeing oneself in the ‘Other’). W.E.B. Dubois had a desire to see America interpreted through the acknowledgement of two very different worlds merging through African and White Americanism (McKenna & Pratt, 2015). Or as it were, racial barriers should be acknowledged and both sides study to merge and unify.
The social inequality is a form of differentiation, in which the separate individuals, social groups, strata, classes belong to various vertical levels of the social hierarchy and have unequal life chances and opportunities to meet the needs. Generally, inequality means that people live in conditions under which they have unequal access to scarce resources of material and spiritual consumption. ‘Inequality’ is in itself used in a connection with a number of awkward economic and social problems. Assessment According to Emile Durkheim, the French sociologist and philosopher, as well as the founder of the French sociological school and structural and functional analysis, the main cause of inequality is the need to encourage those who are better in something. All societies have different occupations that are more or less respectable than others (LaCapra).
Distributive justice exists in a society where there exists no inequality, so the Indian constitution through these articles tries to remove the prevailing inequalities in the society. Under Article 38 the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people and develop a social order empowered to bestow upon distributive justice in the form of social, economic and political justice. So, basically Distributive Justice is concerned with the welfare of the masses. There exists inequality in all spheres of life be it education, health, equality of opportunity, availability of services or any other field. Poverty is also one of the most extrinsic evidence of Inequality that is most evident in our Indian
“ They distinguish between those aspects of the social system that define and secure the equal liberties of citizenship and those that specify and establish social and economic inequalities.” (p.8). Basically, the interests to be distributed by justice are only those that we can assume everyone will want such as liberties, opportunities, wealth, rights, income etc. The principle of equal liberty is for “each person to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with similar liberty for others” (p.7). For example providing incentives which will generate more wealth for everyone.The difference principle is the “social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and attached to positions and offices open to all”(p.7). For example the freedom of speech and personal property.
One of the points discussed with the common good was the idea of individualism. Though the common good strives for communal equality, social justice is on a more individualistic level, striving for justice within individuals. It was previously mentioned that it is important to find a balance between individualism and the common good. Having reached the common good brings society one step closer to accomplishing social justice. Nevertheless, optimal health and well-being, the common good, and social justice all closely relate to one another.
As previously mentioned, this isn’t only due to more violence, but it is also a result of tougher sentencing. The more unequal the society is, the more likely the death penalty is to be administrated. This increase in safety is just one of many benefits of reducing income inequality. Government intervention is the most effective and efficient way to tackle income inequality. In conclusion, there are both advantages and disadvantages to economic inequality, but when many of the individuals in the community strive for a better standard of living, the goal of the community becomes to achieve a better standard of living.
It is also characterized by many different ways such as unequal salary, limited cultural resources, unequal access to education, and most of all, the inequitable treatment given by the judicial system, police, and many more, may it be governmental or non-governmental in other words, Social Injustice. Social Inequality can be classified into two ways: the inequality of condition and Inequality of opportunities (Crossman, 2017). Unequal access to education, limited cultural resources, and the other things mentioned above fall under inequality of condition wherein people in lower classes are deprived or given less than the people belonging to the upper class. With opportunities, it deals with how people can survive their everyday living with grabbing chances to produce money for certain purposes. Jencks (1988) points out that opportunity can be additionally a component of a cooperation between an individual and his or her unique circumstance.
Gender Inequality in Singapore The idea of bridging the gender inequality gap is very similar to Stuart Hall’s aims where he championed for social and political rights such as racial and gender equality. This idea has been a challenge to many countries in the world, where gender discrimination and inequality is still deeply entrenched in our societies today. I believe that it is only right that Men and Women are being treated equally, and even though we have principles and rules that strive for equality, discriminatory practices are definitely prevalent in many countries, not excluding a first world country like Singapore. According to research, Singapore ranks 59 out of 142 countries on the Global Gender Gap index (Yahya & Tan, 2014). This
Thus, discrimination on the basis of one’s gender, religion, region, etc, is unacceptable, while discrimination on the basis of education and experience is a norm in any given society. Hence, it is important to identify the nature and causes of discrimination that exists in the society. In this paper, we attempt to achieve this objective. Our analysis reveals some interesting facets of discrimination in Bangladesh, many of which is contrary to common beliefs. Urban-rural location is an important source of regional discrimination.