Inequality In Democracy

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Introduction
Democracy is the symbol of fairness which should reduce inequality, because in democracies one has elections. During these elections, voters can simply support the politicians who stand for redistribution when the level of inequality is too high. However, much research showed that during the past two generations, the economic inequality is still rising rapidly in the United States and many other countries which also have advanced democracies, following the increase of democracy. (Bonica, McCarty, Poole, & Rosenthal, 2013)

In Adam’s article, there are five reasons that lead to the increase of inequality. First, Ideological Shift and Greater Polarization on both Republicans and Democrats. Second, voting participation and inequality.
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If the voting is compulsory, then everyone must participate in the election, which can increase the level of turnout rates directly.

Compulsory voting is common, there are 32 countries have or have had the compulsory voting system in the world. For example: Belgium introduced compulsory voting system in 1892, Mexico in 1911 and Australia in 1924. The earlier research showed that in the countries with compulsory voting system, the turnout rates had a massive increase and remain stable. Thus, sometimes compulsory voting is known as an effective remedy to solve the low turnout rate problem. (Quintelier, Hooghe, & Marien, 2011)

The compulsory voting can make sure the full turnout, which can overcome two kinds of common reasons for “rational abstention”: information uncertainty about other potential voters’ aims and the transaction and opportunity costs of voting. The compulsory voting enables voters to solve the problem of the lack of information, not only for the value of individual vote, but also relate to other voters’ intentions. For instance, during the elections, it is rational for a poor to vote, which can protect his interest and right. However, this rationality holds only when he knows that most of the people who share the same circumstance as him vote. But the fact is that most people who have the same circumstance as him have the option of abstaining,
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Due to Campaign Contribution Limits, the effects of voters’ personal contributions are the same during elections, which can make it possible for voters to express their opinion accurately. Campaign Contribution Limits are thought as an important mechanism which is used to reduce the impact of special interests and encourage citizens to participate in the elections. Campaign Contribution Limits are able to force candidates to rely on smaller democratic system, which can reduce the values of
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