3.2. SOCIOECONOMIC-RELATED INEQUALITY AND INEQUITY IN HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE 3.2.1. Defining inequality and inequity in health and health care utilization 22.214.171.124. Terms inequality, inequity and disparity In the health equity literature, the terms “inequality”, “inequity” and “disparity” are used interchangeably; however, as dictionary definitions, these are distinguishable. In the Cambridge Dictionary, these are defined as follows: • Inequality – the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc.
This part opens wider discussions on the experiences in relation to cancer, cancer treatments, and relevant social experiences (including inequality issues) regarding biomedicine. This section should deal with three points. The first issue is a big number of undesirable events related to cancer treatments, including surgical treatments. The second issue is how patients have interpreted (sometimes lived) doubts and complaints in the direct link to the practices of biomedical professionals – mostly doctors but also nurses –. Doubts of patients reflect the ambiguity of principles of bioethics practiced by the professionals, through the eyes of patients.
What does the term health disparities mean? Health disparities according to Medline Plus refers to the differences in the health status of different groups of people. (MedlinePlus, 2017) These differences are mainly the rates of which diseases and deaths the most common among that certain group compared to others. Groups can be based on a person’s race, ethnicity, immigrant status, disability, gender, income, and geography. Health disparities are unjust and related to the unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources available to people.
Stigma refers to a negative or unfavourable perception that embodies the individual or community’s attitude or beliefs; or public policies towards self or a group of people with certain characteristics that fall short of society’s expectations. It is a reflection of fear and the unknown, driven by ignorance and helplessness. As a consequence of stigma or when stigma is acted upon, discrimination is said to occur, which is an unfair act or unjust treatment towards an individual or group based on identified characteristics  . Stigma and discrimination is of public health concern as it can negatively or adversely affect the physical health, mental health and overall wellbeing of the individual and community as a whole . HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatizing disease and people living with HIV/AIDS are very vulnerable to stigmatization and discrimination due to the persisting myths, misinformation and false beliefs that always associate HIV/AIDS with death .
Scambler’s perspective Scambler and Hopkins (1986), are the medical sociologists that have further developed the Goffman’s ideas of information management in their research of people with epilepsy (Cooke and Philipin, 2008). Based on Goffman’s (1968), stigma was known to signify an “ontological deficit” which was violating against the social norms of identity or being (Scambler, 2009). Scambler proposed stigma can be clearly understood by distinguished them into ‘felt’ and ‘enacted’ stigma (Scambler, 2009). Enacted stigma occurred when there was obvious discrimination against people in view of their socially unacceptability (Scambler, 2009). As for, felt stigma was the developed of feeling being shame which was associated with the
Body image may be a complex phenomenon that emphasizes an individual’s mental perception and attitudes towards their appearance. Disturbances in one’s body image is a common outcome when undergoing extensive surgeries which result in an altered physical appearance. Patients with ostomy bags possibly face psychological distress as an outcome because of their altered appearance. Through my clinical experience, working with a colorectal cancer patient, I noticed the need of an ileostomy bag negative impacted the patient’s self-image. The focus of this paper analyzes body image dissatisfaction in patients with ostomy bags based within the context of my patient’s personal experience.
Although, the health care system is set up to reduce or to prevent disease etc., there is a gap or disparity in the US health care system. The sexual orientation, race, age, etc., in the US deprived certain groups from receiving equal opportunity in the health care and the health care. Thus, making the disparities in the US health system an increasing problem issue. What is/ are the health and health care issue or disparities? According to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2012), health and health care disparity refer to differences in the health and health care between population groups.
In relation to nursing, for example, process indicators, such as vacancy rates, job turnover or wastage, use of temporary staff, application rates for training positions, and outcome indicators (e.g., mortality rates, cross infection, and patient accidents) may all point to a staffing shortage.14 There are a number of indicators that can be used to determine whether there is a health worker shortage in a country. "Health worker availability" refers to the idea that workers are trained and employed as health workers to provide services to advance the public 's health (O’Brien & Gostin). Shortages encompasses three concepts: first, inadequacies in the health workforce due to a failure to train an adequate number of health workers; second, a lack of health workers who, despite being trained, are ready and willing to serve in the health system;15and third, a lack of employment opportunities for health
Health disparity are avertible health status of distinctive group of people like races, skin color, language, socioeconomic resources, gender and age (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Health disparities are arbitrary and explicit to historical and present uneven distribution of political, economic, social, and environmental resources. A disparity can also be related to education, where dropping out of school occurs associated with various social and health problems (CDC,2017). Comprehensively, person with inadequate education are more likely to struggle number of health risks such as substance abuse, obesity, and traumatic injuries, compared to individual who receive more education. One of the main findings within health disparities in history
Corruption presents many challenges to the health sector. The impact of corruption on health care access and outcomes, as well as anti-corruption measures receive increasing interest among health policy-makers, since corruption in the health sector is a wide-spread problem with negatively affecting health status and social welfare. (46) 2.5.1 Literature Review In broader literature, the concept of corruption resp. mechanisms for controlling and enforcing corruption are often associated with governance and financing (7,46,47). Kaufmann (48) argues that in the progress towards UHC, governance resp.