Total fertility rate: is the average number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. 9.) Reproductive health: is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. It is a gamut of human sexuality and reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. 10.)
1. Describe and discuss one genetically linked reproductive health issue and blood disorder in terms of detection, prevention, and health promotion. Primary infertility (genetically controlled) can be taken here as an example of reproductive health issue whereas, Hemophilia as a blood disorder. According to WHO, primary infertility can be defined as incapability to bear any children either because of inability to conceive, or due to incapacity to carry it to full term after 1 year of unprotected sexual contact. Though, there can be several reasons behind primary infertility, but out of genetically linked causes present in females, the predominant one is aberration of X- chromosome such as, partial deletion, presence of isochromosomes, and
Chapter one Background Infertility is a worldwide health problem that affects both men and women and has a significant impact on their lives. Globally, 10-15% of childbearing age couples experience infertility (1-2). Globally the number of infertile couples has increased since 1990 when 42,0 million couples were unable to have a child, in 2010 it was estimated that 48,5 million couples worldwide was dealing with infertility and 19,2 million couples are unable to have the first child while 29,3 million couples are unable to have a second child, 14.4 million of these couples are living in South Asia and 10.0 million lives in South Saharan Africa (81). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 80 million people in the world live
INTRODUCTION Infertility has no limits, existing within cultures and social classes throughout the world. Infertile couples can often experience feelings of disbelief, shame, jealousy and anger (Tulppala, 2007). Tulppala states that nearly 15% of all couples have infertility problems at some point in their lives. The couple in the scenario above is no exception. As this husband and wife face the challenges associated with infertility, they resort to a process referred to as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
Infertility in women is defined as the inability to become pregnant after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. This can be caused by multiple factors, specifically age or anomalies within the female genetalia. On the one hand, infertility through age is the most common form of infertility, since all women are born with finite numbers of ova which decrease in amount over the years. For example, according to Wallace, Hamish B., and Thomas W. Kelsey, women only possess 12% of their initial amount of ova by the age of 30, and the figure decreases rapidly until menopause. Therefore it is evident that infertility due to age is caused solely due to the decreasing amount of ova in the ovaries, which in turn decreases the probability of fertilization.
Causes of Divorce Divorce is a term that is known worldwide and has been around for many centuries. According to the article: Marriage and Divorce, in American Psychological Association, “about 40 to 50 percent of married couples in the United States divorce. The divorce rate for subsequent marriages is even higher.” Although the percentage of divorce rate is high young adults still consider the thought of marriage, while others are determined to get married and start a family at a young age, unaware they have these high expectations of what a marriage should be. However, once they see and experience the constant yelling and arguments, avoidance, low self-esteem, mental and physical abuse they feel as if they cannot fulfill these expectations and choose to opt-out of marriage. Therefore, young adults considering marriage should be aware and fully understand what the leading causes of high divorce rates are.
A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the 'divorce phenomenon' and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework.
Male infertility may be due to acquired or congenital conditions. About 15-30% of male are infertile due to genetical reasons (Ferlin A et al 2007). The prevalence rate of infertility is found in both developed and developing countries. To assess the infertility in male, medical history and physical examination including semen analysis is performed, After semen analysis, an infertile male may present with following conditions: (a) oligozoospermia (decreased number of spermatozoa), (b) teratozoospermia (many abnormal sperms), (c)
These are questions that couples ask themselves everyday. How far should you go to bring a baby into this world? The definition of infertility is: “the absence of conception after six months to a year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse” (Dictionary.com). Some basic causes of infertility for women are cystic ovaries, stress, pelvic infection, drug use, or their weight. The mucus around the cervix may be too thin, too thick, or too acidic
This really is great news, but is really so frustrating should you haven't become pregnant yet. Within the situation of unexplained infertility it's not easy to determine how to proceed next. An analysis of unexplained infertility is offered to around 25% of couples with infertility. Unexplained Infertility: Sometimes it may be as easy as a dietary deficiency, low cervical mucous, inaccurate timing of sexual activity, a pre-existing ailment, or it might be you need to explore choices for more in-depth testing. You should cover all of the basics, including additional testing that might need to occur.