2. Rising labour costs - caused by wage increases that exceed improvements in productivity. Wage and salary costs often rise when unemployment is low (creating labour shortages) and when people expect inflation so they bid for higher pay in order to protect their real incomes. 3. Higher indirect taxes imposed by the government – for example a rise in the duty on alcohol, cigarettes and petrol/diesel or a rise in the standard rate of Value Added Tax.
For the economy as a whole, demand pulled inflation refers to the price increases which results from an excess of demand over supply. It is a form of inflation and categorized by the four parts (households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers). When these parts want to purchase greater output than the economy can produce and we need more cash to buy the same amount of goods as before and the value of money falls, so they have to compete in order to purchase limited amounts of products and services. Generally, the demand-pulled inflation result from any factor that increases aggregate demand. Also, an increase in export and two factors controlled by the government are increases in the quantity of money and increases in government purchases
Cost Push Theory Cost push theory is where inflation is due to direct result of increase in the cost of production that is increase in prices of raw materials, increase in labour cost (wages & salaries). Cost push inflation can be also defined as prices have been “pushed up’ due to increase in price for factors of production. So as the cost push theory says inflation is caused by increase in cost of production factors, this leads to decrease in the demand for raw materials, which leads to decrease in production and demand stays consistent, than this leads to increase in price (inflation). The figure 1.0 shows what happens in the cost push theory. If the firm is operating at point Q1, P1 any increase in price for factors of production will lead to increase in price that is moving from point P1 to P2 quantity supplied decreases due to increase in cost for factors of production moving from Q1 to Q2.
While the demand remains constant, the prices of commodities increase causing a rise in the overall price level. This is in essence cost push inflation. CITATION The l 17417 (The Economic Times, n.d.) The overall price level increases due to higher costs of production which reflects in terms of increased prices of goods and commodities which majorly use these inputs. This is inflation triggered from supply side i.e. because of less supply.
Economists differentiate between many types of inflation: Demand-Pull Inflation and Cost-Push Inflation. Both types of inflation cause an increase in the overall price level within an economy. The demand-pull inflation is when there is a rapid aggregate demand for goods and services, than rapid increase in the amount of money in the economy. Cost Push inflation is happens when there is a rapid increase wages of workers and prices of material used on production. Rising house money can cause inflation and printing more money, the money supply plays an important role in determining prices.
.3.3 Inflation Rate The inflation rate used as an indicator in measuring the stability of economic condition for a particular country (Rashid et al., 2011). In financial theory, inflation rate reflected by consumer price index (CPI) represents all the price of goods and services will go up and it need to take more money to buy the same items. Moreover, high inflation is likely cause a great impact on economic activities of a particular country because it reduces the purchasing power of domestic consumers and it would lead to currency value decline. The previous researchers believe that the inflation rate will influence the stock market return. There are many empirical studies establish that the inflation rate has an impact on stock market
A high inflation will depreciate the domestic currency and an increase in inflation will increase the demand for foreign goods. It also decrease export, leading to balance of payment deficit. Hence, exchange rate on the foreign base countries currency will rise which appreciate the home base currency, (Madura, 2008). He also explained the relationship using the purchasing power parity. The theory of PPP states that a basket of a good in one country should have the same cost in another country, taking into account exchange
Cost-push inflation happens when we face higher prices due to the increase in cost of production and higher costs of raw materials. It is determined by supply side factors. Cost-push inflation can be caused by higher price of commodities, imported inflation, higher wages, higher taxes and higher food prices (Economics Help, 2011). Demand-pull inflation happens when there is an increase in the price of goods and services when demand increases too much that it outpaces supply (US Economy, 2015). Sometimes people refer it as “too much money chasing too few goods”.
Inflation is the pervasive and sustained rise in the aggregate level of prices measured by an index of the cost of various goods and services. Repetitive price increases erode the purchasing power of money and other financial assets with fixed values, creating serious economic distortions and uncertainty. Inflation results when actual economic pressures and anticipation of future developments cause the demand for goods and services to exceed the supply available at existing prices or when available output is restricted by faltering productivity and marketplace constraints. Sustained price increases were historically directly linked to wars, poor harvests, political upheavals, or other unique events. 2.2 TYPES OF INFLATION (1) Demand-Pull Inflation:
when the economic activity is high, the stock prices are also high indicating the prosperous outlook for sales and profit of the firm. Many countries of world are plagued by a rising rate of inflation. Economic analysis helps in providing an explanation of why inflation has taken place. It also suggests ways in which rate of inflation could be brought down, so that economic development could