Gender of children has been found to have an effect on their choice of influence strategy. The following reviews explore the dimensions of the gender based differences which may have an influence in family decision making. McNeal and Yeh, (2003) found that boys are seen to be further influential for products like video games, entertainment and fun items, whereas, girls influence high in household items like cloths, bakery items and writing papers. Manchanda and Moore-Shay (1996) classified influence strategies into three main types as high, low and moderate power strategies. Girls use little power or weak strategies more often than boys do towards their parents Boys have higher influence in pestering than girls.
In this study, the gender of the parents and children, the ages of children and socio-economic status of the families have been considered. This study shows that socialization patterns in the family are affected by parents’ gender. Parental cooperation patterns vary according to the parents’ gender. In contrast to previous studies (which were mentioned before) about the stereotypes of the fathers’ role in interaction, in the study of Grebelsky (2014) it has been found that level of involvement of fathers in raising the children has increased. This has led to nontraditional familial roles.
These gender roles evolve from standards put in place by society. What do theorists say about socialization and gender in child development? One of the major theories that are beneficial in learning about gender role development is the Social Learning Theory. According to behaviorist, Bandura, children first learn gender roles by observing behaviors of an adult of the same sex, imitating said adult (Bandura, 1977). Then, the surrounding adult will respond either with positive or negative reinforcement (Bandura, 1977).
Children raised this way will be brought up as a prophecy to what their parents believe. For example, boys are expected to be much more aggressive and stronger than a girl child, while the girls are thought of to be more emotional and more social than the boys. These gender roles
They tend to overestimate the ability of their child when its sex is favoured by the stereotype or on the contrary if they are not favoured to underestimate their ability (Jacobs & Eccles, 1992). This effect is illustrated by a study about reading abilities, which also shows that parents are not the only ones that influence their child: stereotypically girls are favoured in terms of reading. Teachers that had strong gender stereotypes influenced the self reading concepts of boys in grade 6 negatively unrelated to their actual performance, while no effect for girls was found (Retelsdorf, Schwartz, & Asbrock, 2015). Another negative effect that is created by conveying stereotypical gender roles is associated with the occupation the children choose in later years. Girls who spent more time with their fathers in their childhood were less likely to choose a gender-typical career, but boys that spent more time with their fathers were more likely to pursue a gender typical occupation, which shows the impact of the family even 15 years later; more traditional attitudes of the mothers also led to a more gender typical occupation for boys only (Lawson, Crouter, & McHale,
This study shows that behavioral expectations from a male or female can be established in children by a young age. This can have adverse effects on children, which may increase by time. These norms and roles are generally introduced to children at a young age and because of this they become the foundation of their belief system. As time passes by, these norms are further reinforced inside children by our societies. In the world of teenagers, socials norms are divided into two different categories, actual norms and perceived norms.
Girls are encouraged to play with dolls as this prepares them for their future role as the nurturer and care giver of the household. Whereas boys are channelized towards games and toys which are more aggressive and also more action packed.Even television programmes, cartoons and children’s books perpetuated gender differences. Adventure stories were the prerogative of male protagonists and girls only provided the background. Thus, the upbringing was related to the gender roles that boys and girls would take up as adults. Boys were trained for roles outside the home and girls for those inside.
From infancy, children are encouraged to adopt behaviours associated with the gender they are “assigned” at birth (based on their physical sex). This affects them for the rest of their lives. These gender roles perpetuate gender stereotypes and sexism. This affects women and men in the work place, as they may not be given the same opportunities. Most women are paid
Children learn and evolve as they grow up so they change how they behave and learn. “In accord with the realization that children’s behaviour affects that of their parents, researchers have found that, whereas parent attitudes affect child behaviour, this relation shifts as the child grows, with adolescent behaviour having an impact on parenting style and attitudes”(Grusec). Though the parents have a big impact on the children it is