The result was greater insight into the realities of Chinese civilisation. Two bodies of thought emerged with this increase in knowledge of China in the 18th century: enlightenment philosophers' identification with Confucianism, and scholarly disillusionment with the changelessness of Chinese civilisation. These bodies make up the final stages of the Western representations cycle, and show the transition from positive to negative depictions of China. The enlightenment period's philosophers continued the cycle of Western positive portrayals of China. The philosophers characterised China as having a model government, which used Confucianism's rational values to achieve effective morality, without Christianity.
The authoritarian regimes gas been causing obstacles to impede international jurisprudence of human rights. First of all, in the aftermath of the 1990s' Asian Values claim, which mentioned filial piety and loyalty as a core idea formed by Confucian tradition. The Confucian traditional values in the claim seem impede to think of human rights. Then, the advocate of collective wellbeing followed a harmonious society, which is originally seen as the ultimate goal in Confucianism, had been used to defend the authoritarian regime from the international intervention. A harmonious society had been demonstrated as an orientation to maintain a social values of a political stability by the CCP 4th leaders, Hu Jintao.10 Hence, owing to the transformation of Confucian thinking as a political use, and human rights abuses, reported by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, the question whether there are human rights perspectives within Confucianism becomes a heated
Compared to areas, partly affected by Confucianism, South East Asia has already the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF). It should not, however be directly argued that a deficiency of human rights protection comes from the influence of Confucian culture. However, it still deserves to be considered whether the institution of Confucianism plays a role. Authoritarian governments often propose a blueprint that before economic growth and well-being for all, people should contribute their political freedom and be restricted partly. However, after the economic growth in China a development of the human right situation did not follow.
After the Republic of China was founded in 1912, China was plagued into political confusions and shame. This has led to the formation of the New Culture Movement by the scholars with the agenda to push China to embrace modernity. It was strongly believed for China to preserve its own culture and strength, China must first become globalised. Thus, breaking traditional Chinese beliefs and culture was part of the development of a progressive society that is able to compete in the globalised world. This has led to the creation of a new Chinese culture based on western and global standards.
Introduction The East Indian Company was established by the British and then monopolized the trades towards Chinese. As the trades could not fulfil the ambition of the British, they requested for more benefits. However, the Qing court rejected and the relationship between the two countries came to a rapid deterioration. Unfortunately, after the out broke of the war, China became weaker than before. The following will discuss the difference between Anglo-China treat business and opium and the reason of the out broke of the First Opium War.
Jerress C. Askew Professor Nicole Ennis History of World Civilization 1 January 27, 2018 Compare and Contrast the Origins of Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism With the birth of their civilization, the ancient Chinese wanted to know what role human beings played within society and the universe as a whole? This question and many others help develop the “hundred schools” of ancient philosophy. In the beginning of Chinese civilization, they believed that the universe comprised of two primary energies, good and evil, light and dark, male and female. In other words, everything had an opposite and finding the balance would lead to a prosperous life and ultimately a prosperous society. Three “schools of thought” were born to figure out this balance.
Shang Yang believed that the first aim of his reform was to construct legal system. For instance, Shang Yang carried the reform in strict terms and when the son of the king violated laws, his teacher got punished. In such a way he told people to be law-abiding, and political reform achieved great success. He instituted compulsory military service and a new system of land division and taxation and insisted on strict and uniform administration
Alternatively, the law could be seen as a pragmatic act, intended to spread support for the party. Instead of marriage being a feudalistic affair, it became a state-procured act, and after the early years of Mao’s rule, marriage became a ceremony in which the two parties were expected to express their love and loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party. The second propaganda poster displayed below (‘a free and independent marriage is good, there is great happiness in unified production’) highlights the political implications behind the law; marriage
This essay will focus on the economic aspects of the Qin dynasty which made them superior to other states and allowed them to conquer and unify China. The Qin state focused heavily on their agriculture, military and bureaucracy, as well as trade and commerce leaving behind a remarkable future of a standardised economy for the following states after them. The Warring States period was a time of uncertainty and political instability. The ruler Duke Xiao appointed Lord Yang who was a follower of Legalism, a philosophy nurturing absolute power, as the Chief Minister to bring change in the Qin State. Legalism was important as it reassured power into the ruler’s hands, forcing people to follow strict legal codes making them obedient to the ruler.
Furthermore, it tipped the balance when the communists, Mao government, took control and established PRC in 1949.This event not only represented a transition of a state, but also it was historic moment that would change the destiny of the region.China’s irrepressible rise to the world stage from regional power to global power, changed the strategic patterns of the region.As China was perceived revolutionary state means that it was challenging the existing order both regionally and globally, and seeking its national interest aggressively by taking strength from it economic power.To counter its assertive and aggressive moves, U.S. with the help of regional powers make an effort to contain China.However, since it is obvious that it can’t rise peacefully, what U.S. and its alliances in the region aim with specific agreements and meetings with China is using diplomacy rather than war that would not only destroy region but also world system due to the fact that China is the biggest market today.Any threat to economic order (that is already not stabile due to several successive crisis) would result in collapse of system as it happened in WWII.Therefore, economic interests prevails over security concerns that compels countries to work collaboratively through agreements.How regional