BRITISH INSTITUTIONS: PARLIAMENT AND MONARCHY 1. What is the Parliament? The Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependences and overseas territories. It possesses legislative supremacy and ultimate power over the rest of political bodies in the UK and its territories. It examines what the Government is doing, creates new laws, retains the power to tax fixation and it is where the concerns of the day are debated.
“We were not born to sue, but to command” (Bevington, 2014). King Richard II was born to rule England. He came from a long line of English leaders. King Richard II played a very important part by leading his country and serving his country in their military. Early during King Richard II’s reign as king he seemed to be doing great, but he soon took a drastic downward turn.
The origin of parliamentary privilege is indistinguishably linked with the history and evolution of the parliamentary institution in England. Broadly, the context of modern day parliamentary privilege refers to the parliament’s stand against executive interference in their working and their struggle over jurisdiction of privata lex. The executive branch of the government diverged from the houses of parliament which lead to difficulty in establishing a place for itself in the framework of the legal system. Consequently, parliamentary privileges are necessary to protect themselves from the inference and power of the monarch and the house of lords in the era. Since the Middle Ages, the House of Commons has been asserting its right to freedom of speech and expression in the face of royal interference from the monarch.
“There is no doubt that of all the institutions which have grown up among us over the centuries, or sprung into being in our lifetime, the constitutional monarchy is the most deeply founded and dearly cherished by the whole association of our peoples” (Churchill, 1952). Winston Churchill may have said not better words about monarchies. They either or are part of almost all countries in the world. Having a monarch as the main figurehead of a country is very important and adds comfort to people when there is upheaval in the actual government. While the constitutional monarchy may be the main constitutional systems it is not always or the only parliamentary system in place.
In a single party government, the choice of ministers is at the discretion of the prime minister alone. In a coalition, the power of the prime minister is significantly limited. Officially Cameron is the prime minister, who has the ability to form his own government. However, in a coalition, the deputy prime minister has a bigger role than his predecessors. He too has a role in appointing ministers.
Introduction The United Kingdom once called the empire on which the sun never sets, it was a time when British world maps showed the Empire in red and pink to highlight British imperial power spanning the globe. The term "United Kingdom" normally is understood to include Northern Ireland; the term "Great Britain" refers to the island of Britain and its constituent nations of England, Wales, and Scotland but does not include Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, a form of government in which a king or queen acts as Head of State; however, the ability to make the pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament. The monarch is chief of state and the prime minister is head of government, but the spiritual leader
He was the member of the cabinet, the head of the Judiciary and was entitle to hear appeal cases in the House of Lords which are a Legislative chamber. Therefore, it led to dissension to the doctrine of separation of powers which was contradictory to the independence of the judiciary. The Government announced to abolish the office of Lord Chancellor in order to have a more formal separation of powers. The intention was to transfer the Lord Chancellor’s ministerial functions to the new office of Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs, leaving his judicial functions to be performed by the Lord Chief Justice. In McGonnell v United Kingdom , the European Court of Human Rights confirmed the previous decision of the commission in relation to the judicial function of the Bailiff of the island of Guernsey and it was help that Bailiff had acted as a judge in a case in which he had played an administrative role was in breach of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights.
2. If we were to understand semi-presidentialism as the situation where a country has a president with quite considerable powers, but where there is also a prime minister with some political authority too, then, in practice, the set of semi-presidential countries in non-democratic regimes would indeed be empty. Typically, authoritarian and competitive authoritarian regimes are governed by a single, powerful political leader, often holding the office of president. As we have seen, though, it is misleading to think of semi-presidentialism in this way. At root, the concept is taxonomic.
Westminster political model has been operational in the United Kingdom for a long time. The model is set in such a way that it concentrates power in the executive arm of the government. The kind of democracy that is practiced under the model is a representative democracy (Bache and Flinders 2004, p.31). That is, the parliament has given the executive the power to make laws on behalf of the people. Lately, Westminster model is failing in the political system in Britain (Marsh, Richards and Smith 2003, p. 306).
For centuries, English was not the official language in England. Its history with the Normans and the long period of French Kings' royalty in the country never helped the development of their own language. Through the centuries, many English thinkers promoted the importance of the English over the prestigious French and Latin, to make it become their National language, and a real part of their culture. How did the English language develop in England, and how did it become the main official language? Moreover, what are the processes of standardisation from the 12th century until the prescriptivist movement of the 18th century?