Trustworthiness and Credibility Parallel to the criteria of quantitative research as suggested by Guba (1981), such as internal validity, reliability, and objectivity, qualitative research has also different criteria for its evaluation (Lincoln, 1995). We considered the trustworthiness criteria as suggested by Guba and Lincoln (1985) such as credibility, confirmability or auditability, dependability, and transferability or fittingness of the study (Cutcliffe & McKenna, 1999; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Sandelowski, 1986; Streubert-Speziale, 2007). Trustworthiness. Is present throughout the entire execution of our research. Honesty and determination have been implemented to prove the trustworthiness of this study.
Credibility allows the researcher to verify their interpretations and accuracy of their perspective by returning for further interviews with the participants (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p. 126). Credibility also refers to how believable the research findings are or the true value of the study. The additional interviews following the examination of data analysis will broaden the study’s credibility. Auditability is the participant showing accountability of the information provided and the transfer of raw data into research findings (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p. 126). During this study, a detailed description of the participants’ personal experience, environment, and circumstances will be given in a way that others can
The trustors qualities, skills and behaviour with gestures and body language indicating caring, attention, warmth and patience are key to develop a trusting relationship (Rortveit K. et al. 2015). Trust was associated with nurses taking time, sitting down and answering questions, showing interest and expressing concern as well as sharing experiences and emotions (Rortveit K. et al. 2015). Nurses who demonstrated a commitment to person-centred care were seen as trustworthy professionals (Thorpe G. et al.
The authors also pointed out that the framework is suitable when dealing with data from an oral source. The researchers claimed that techniques to establish rigour have been started since the beginning of the study. Establishing rigour in a qualitative study is very important to have valuable research. The authors of the articles claimed that; coherence, relevance, auditability, reflexivity and credibility were all considered relevant to this study and that they were incorporated in different ways within the study. The researchers also failed to examine their own role during analysis of data in preventing any potential bias.
It must be developed and, over time, its depth and consequences within a relationship change. Korsgaard, Brower, and Lester ascertain that when trust is present a partner is essentially expressing vulnerability on the grounds that they believe the other partner’s intentions to be positive. They surmised that here is a cognitive, affective, and intentional component within trust. Other scholars, such as Karen Jones, the author of “Trust as An Affective Attitude” only see trust as consisting of the cognitive and affective. Understanding the components of trust lays the groundwork for understanding how trust emerges, changes, and effects both the trustor and the
When people have a high degree of trust, they tend to perceive less of the risk that they may face when conducting online shopping. For that reason, Trust has a negative influence on Perceived – Risk. On the other hand, Trust has a positive impact on Attitude – Intention. As a matter of fact, customers often take action when they are having a high level of trust on the brands that they are going to buy. Therefore, Trust will enhance positively customers’ attitude and intention.
Trustworthiness is an expectation on other party who does not behave opportunistically to take the advantages of the particular situation (Lee et al. 2015 cited from Gefen et al. 2003b). Furthermore, they have proposed trust as “cognitively active construct”. Trustworthiness is a key issue especially in an online environment where as more uncertainty can be seen (Hajli 2015 cited from Pavlov 2003).
In their study, Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement, Bryk and Schneider discuss their 10-year study of more than 400 Chicago elementary schools. Findings are based on case study data as well as surveys of teachers, principals, and students conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research. Analyzing the relationship between a school productivity trend indicator and periodic survey reports, Bryk and Schneider were able to establish a connection between the level of trust in a school and student learning. While they are careful to clarify that trust in and of itself does not directly affect student learning, they did find that “trust fosters a set of organizational conditions, some structural and other social-psychological, that make it more conducive for individuals to initiate and sustain the kinds of activities necessary to affect productivity improvements. Bryk and Schneider’s work indicates that while trust alone does not guarantee success, schools with little or no trust have almost no chance of improving.
It also gave the idea that there is a negative relationship between financial costs and switching costs and behavioral intentions. Also service quality, loyalty and word of mouth had positive relationship Dr Rathee Rupa et al(2014) To Identify Service Quality Gaps in Banking Sector: A Study of Private Banks International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology Vol3, No.7)2014 The study used a sample size of 100 using quota sampling and SERVQUAL scale to find out service quality gaps in private sector banks.The highest gap in the quality areas was found to be in the Reliability and Empathy aspectsand the study provides usggestions to solve
- Linguistic analysis, discourse analysis, genre analysis focus on knowledge of how language is used in target situation. - Wants focus on the target population’s desire - Means analysis focuses on the environment where the course is run. To perform needs analysis for the particular group, the researcher has to understand the procedures of the needs analysis and pay attention to each of steps in order to render the valid and reliable research. McCawley (2009) argues six steps of needs analysis include: - Write objective - what does the researcher want to learn from needs analysis? - Select audience - who is the target population or group?