Job Satisfaction: A Conceptual Framework

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CHAPTER-1

JOB SATISFACTION (A conceptual framework)

JOB SATISFACTION
(A conceptual framework)
INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction has been an interesting subject for managers and academicians for many years. It influences the efficiency of employees thereby it determines the effectiveness of organizations. Interestingly, it is an intangible and qualitative variable. It relates to feelings, emotions and expressions. Thus, it is a psychological aspect of expression of an attitude. Attitude is a permanent impression formed about the job. Employees interact with people and other resources while on the job. In the process, they experience positive or negative feelings on various aspects of structure and environment of the job
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It is a subset of attitude.
Job satisfaction influences the skill and energy of an individual.
It can be positive or negative. It is expressed in a high or low degree.
Job satisfaction is associated with emotional state of human mind.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is intangible and multi-variable. A number of factors influence the job satisfaction of employees. They can be classified into three categories. They are organizational factors, group factors and individual factors. In this regard, a brief discussion is made hereunder.

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS. A number of factors in the organization determine job satisfaction of employees. Organizations can increase job satisfaction by organizing and managing certain factors, which are described below.

WAGES Wages play an important role in influencing job satisfaction. This is because of two reasons. The first one is that money is an important instrument in fulfilling one?s needs. The second one is that employees often see pay as a reflection of management?s concern for them. There is no denying the fact that employees want a pay system which is simple, fair and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair, based on job demands, individual skill level, and community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Often the definition of fair and equitable wage does not exist. So, wages are not perceived as equal to the labor exerted by employees. This leads to dissatisfaction
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Job satisfaction shows a weak-to-moderate negative relationship to turnover that is, high job satisfaction leads to lower turnover. This is because, employees who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit than those who are dissatisfied with few exceptions. For instance. Some dissatisfied employees never leave the organization. All the same, some satisfied employees may leave the organization. Moreover, unlike absenteeism, which is a temporary form of withdrawal from the organization, turnover is a permanent withdrawal and it can have major impact on an employee?s life. Hence, the decision to quit the job is not usually made lightly but is instead the result of a carefully thought-out process. According to Bill Mobley, employees who are highly satisfied with their jobs never think about quitting. On the other hand, employees who are dissatisfied start thinking about leaving the company. Exhibit 1.4 presents the

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