The study analyzes Forces which work behind rapid urbanization in Bangladesh. An assessment has also been made to evaluate, the positive and negative impacts of balanced urbanization and decentralization to ease pressure on Dhaka. The paper finally concludes providing some strategies and recommendations that might be helpful to the policy makers in formulating development policies for sustainable urban
Thesis Statement: Relocation programs help informal settlers promote self-reliance and productivity by enhancing their capability, proficiency and optimism. Poor and informal settlement are two different things, poor means having a little money and informal settlement means areas where groups of housing units have been constructed on land that the occupants have no legal claim to, or occupy illegally. It means that the level of the informal settlers or the squatters is lower than the poor because squatters do not have their own property. If the informal settlers are located to another place it means that the government gave the informal settlers a house, and nothing more. The person still needs to work and use the skills that they have to
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Urban warming has a serious energy and environmental impact. In recent years, many researches have been carried out: (1) to design, develop and apply efficient mitigation techniques for the urban environment (Hashem 1992; Akbari et al. 2001; Santamouris 2014); (2) to update knowledge and skills on the design and application of urban mitigation strategies (Gartland 2008; Akbari et al. 2016). 2.1 Urbanization and climate change Urbanization is an intricate and vibrant procedure performing over diverse scales of space and time (Grimm et al.
However, the issues that surrounds informal development relating to poverty, poor housing or dysfunctional urbanization, lies within the state as portrayed by ‘heroic’ (Roy, 2005; 148) interpretations, where the state creates the problem of informality through excessive regulation, particularly in relation to the supply of land. The acceptance of non-state, or market-led, interventions is
The slow pace with which planning, enforcement and implementation catches on, ensures that these settlements get enough time to turn into full-fledged communities, often contributing to the city by means of their enterprise or labour, albeit as encroachers, with no secure tenure but also not one to be wished away. Hence a growth oriented development, results in the displacement of these informal settlements as an inevitable outcome, assuming significance in light of urban development becoming more accommodating of the poor and their settlements over the years. Mumbai is the commercial and financial capital of India and home to over 16 million people. It generates 1/3 of the country’s tax revenue and 5% of its GDP. However, of the entire population, approximately six million live in slums, alongside roads, railway tracks and on pavements.
People in the rural areas hear about success stories of those who moved to the urban areas and this acts as an incentive for people to move out to urban areas, those who migrate are mostly concerned with the benefits they hope to gain and give less thought to the problems that arise as a result of their migration, Rural-urban migration has long since been recognized as one of the major problems of rural development in Nigeria and yet the government has not been able to effectively curb it. (Nwosu 1979). Migration and natural population increase contribute to urban growth but is dependent on the level of urbanization. Rhoda (1983) though increase in population in the urban areas leads to a number of varying difficulties; increasing urbanization and growth of urban poverty are among the most pervasive difficulties of growing urban
With this rate of urbanization, the land availability and strategies of expansion in terms of various factor determining settlement structure needs to be analyzed in order to understand and predict the change of urban settlement structure on a long term. The attributes of a region encourages economic activity in that region. The regions lacking these attributes lag behind in economic development. Thus, the attributes are generally defined spatially. These attributes can be categorised into four broad spatial determinants viz.
Dispersed settlements enjoy nature but are too small to support efficient infrastructure facilities and units of production. With respect to equity, spatial polarisation is built on competition and so leads to spatial segregation between rich and poor, central and peripheral cities. Spatial dispersal is egalitarian in its distribution of poverty but denies its citizens opportunities for social mobility. With respect to sustainability, large settlements use less energy for transport but more for high-rise buildings, air-conditioning and waste management. On the contrary, dispersed settlements can utilise local renewable resources but are wasteful in terms of transport energy
3.1 Introduction There are a number of issues relating to the subject of informal settlements. This chapterelaborates on the different types of informal settlements, the challenges faced by people living in its surroundings or environment, issues faced its inhabitants, and challenges leading to community strikes and protests. With the example of the eThekwini municipality, the chapter will look at the reasons for informal settlements and the ongoing issues of inefficient service delivery. According to Statistics South Africa (2001) the term “informal settlements” is defined as “an unplanned settlement on land which has not been surveyed or proclaimed as residential, consisting mainly of informal dwellings (shacks)”. Statistics South Africa (2001) further defines informal dwellings as “a makeshift structure not approved by a local authority and not intended as a permanent dwelling”.
And this urban poor population is increasing rapidly. The pressure on the migrants and the area is increasing. There is no end to this day by day rising problem. If continued, it will lead to unavailability or end of resources, scarcity of food in the country as their will be more demand and more environmental changes due to direct land heating and