Adherents of social constructivism feel most meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities with other human beings (McMahon, 1997 as cited by O’Bien, 2007). Social constructivism is based on the premise that the social world of the learner includes the learner, the teacher, friends, other students, and other people (Lawson, 2003). Because the teacher plays such an important role in the education process, both in terms of what content is taught and what methods are used it, it seems that studying the underlying attitudes of teachers with the students in their classrooms would help teachers better understand the types of experiences that both students and social studies teachers have as well as the social interactions in the
Some theories have been postulated to address the various stages that are involved in child development. Two of these theories include the evolutionary perspective and the Bronfenbrenner 's ecological model. Bronfenbrenner 's ecological model discusses the significance of the whole ecological system that surrounds a child during development. Such systems consist of various subsystems that help and enhance the growth of children. On the other hand, the evolutionary perspective states that the mind of human beings are predominantly composed of highly specialized systems that are designed with special features to solve certain issues, the theory further postulates that the problems are consistent and some have confronted ancestors and digs deeper into the lineage.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Both Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky believed that children build knowledge through experiences. Piaget believed this occurred through exploration with hands-on activities. Vygotsky, on the other hand, believed that children learn through social and cultural experiences. This process is mediated by the interactions that take place with peers and adults. While collaborating with others through interactions, children learn the traditions, values, beliefs, and language of their culture.
Vygotsky maintained that speech is a major psychological tool in the child's development of thinking. As children age and develop, their basic speech becomes increasingly complex. However, Jean Piaget holds somehow different ideas. His theory of cognitive development,which is guided by the hypothesis of how people interact with their surroundings and how they acquire new knowledge and intellectual into existing knowledge,described and explained the changes in the logical thinking of children and adolescents. Still, both of Piaget and Vygotsky assumed that the crucial role played by cognitive development in the psychological development of people can not be ignored.
Bandura argues that a personality influences and causes a person to behave in a certain way. However Bandura furthermore went on to realize that not only does the environment cause behavior, but that a behavior can also cause the environment as well. Bandura labeled this concept reciprocal determinism. The Social Learning approach (here and after to be mentioned as SLA) proposes that psychological processes; that is our ability to entertain imagery and the use of language in our minds, plays a vital role in developing our
3.1) Theories of Behaviour Management Behaviour management is a tool, a system, generates learning environment to encourage positive behaviour and minimise the opportunity for negative conduct to occur. It is like modifying and change learner's action in a positive manner where the primary focus lies on maintaining order. Many theorists presented their views in their research work on the understanding of the nature of the behaviour BILL ROGER is an education consultant and author present his work on behaviour management, discipline, effective teaching, and stress management etc. and also lectures widely covers the topic to both the learner and the teacher for the challenges facing in leadership in educational premises. Bill Roger recommended
(2012) discuss the importance of addressing the social skills and academic content in the classroom through the social learning theory, observational learning theory and the guided learning theory. They suggest that the Social Learning Theory, conceptualized by Albert Bandura argues that learning both behavioural and cognitive occurs through imitation, demonstration, and observation. The major characteristics of social learning theory include centrality of observational learning, self-efficacy and agency, and cognitive contributions. Modeling and learning takes place through live modeling, verbal instruction, and symbolic modeling. The process involves four major steps: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.
Introduction of the Theory (History) Social Learning Theory was introduced by Albert Bandura in year 1977 ( McLeod, 2011). Social Learning Theory was mainly talking about how environmental factor influence the social behavior of an individual. An individual will simply observe and imitate the behaviors or actions of nearby people. In the early stages of Albert Bandura’s research for social learning theory, he analyzed the basics of learning process of human and also the willingness of children and adults to imitate behaviors observed in others. Models are an important source for an individual to learn new things and behaviors.
Sociocultural theory argues that learning is a social process and the beginning of human intelligence in society and culture. The theme of the theory is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels, first on a social level and later the child (Vygotsky 1978) .Social interaction plays a big role in the development of a child’s cognition functions and the key to understanding it is the “ZPD” zone of proximal development. The ZPD includes all the knowledge and skills that a child cannot yet understand or perform on their own but is capable of learning with help and guidance from an adult. As children grow their skills their knowledge grows by observing someone
Some of the important process and variables that Bandura use to understand personality is the Observational Learning that he believe that this is a key aspect of how we learn. Through this process we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves. Also on a Personal Control social cognitive theorists emphasize that we can regulate and control our own behavior, despite our changing environment (Bandura, 2006: Mischel
It is important to begin the training by teaching peers to recognize and appreciate individual differences. Next, review the specific target behaviors that are used to facilitate social interactions, such as initiating interactions, responding to initiations, keeping an interaction going, giving/accepting compliments, helping others/asking for help, and including others in activities. In addition, a list of prompts, scripts and role plays for peers to promote social interactions should be developed. Baseline data should also be collected during this planning phase through direct observation of the student with ASD. After all antecedent supports are in place, peers must be assigned to the learner with ASD and there must be at least one regular 15-minute interaction between the peer and learner on a daily basis.
In my reading, chapter one gave me some good information about assumptions and learning tasks. Jane Vella talked about assumptions in the first chapter and how the first assumption from learners arrive with the capacity to do the work that is involved in learning. Learners must be active, be engaged and held accountable for their learning. The second assumption is that learners learn when they are actively engaged-cognitive, emotionally, and physically –with the content. Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5).
Developmentally appropriate practice implies that educationalists need to consider first about what young children are like and then create an environment and experiences that are attuned to child’s characteristics. According to children’s needs and interests, teachers apply their knowledge about the child development to design a program to fit them and help them accomplish challenging and attainable purposes. There are five key components of developmentally appropriate practice. Firstly, we should create a caring community of learners. Secondly, teaching has to enhance development and learning.