Human Behaviorism, Social Learning Theory, Information Processing Theory

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A theoretical perspective is a set of assumptions about reality that inform the questions we ask and the kinds of answers we arrive as as a result. In a way, these perspectives can be thought of as a frame, which serves to both include and exclude certain things from our view. The following is a very general outline summarizing the theories: Behaviorism, Social Learning Theory, Information Processing Theory, Constructivism and Sociocultural Theory.
The first theory is the Human Behavior Theory - Behaviorism is a view that assumes a learner is responding to environmental stimuli. It is learning that is based on external factors that causes changes in observable behaviors. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the behavior will happen again. This theory was discovered by a russian physiologist in the 1920s,
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Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also, on how cultural beliefs and attitudes influences how instruction and learning take place. Vygotsky theory is children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture provides what he referred to as ‘tools of intellectual adaptation.’ These tools allow students to use their basic mental abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in they which they live. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might use tools like reminders or rote memorization. Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development, he stressed the essential role that social interactions play in cognitive development.
These five theories can be very useful when teaching in the classroom. These theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire, retain and recall knowledge. They can be used as guidelines to help select instructional tools to promote

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