presence can be identified but it is much more difficult to prove its absence (Gosseries et al., 2011). Causes The vegetative state just like other disorders of consciousness can occur due to three main reasons; the first and most common cause is a traumatic brain injury. As a result of a severe head injury, for example an injury sustained during a car accident, a fall from a great height, or a violent assault, a person can enter into a state of vegetative consciousness. According to Gosseries et al. (2011), in most cases where the damage is severe, patients usually die within a few days.
Along with this their movements slow down, and they might also lose their sense of smell. In some cases they might suffer from sleep disorders, depression, constipation. In later stages dementia, which, according to Google Definitions, is defined as a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning. Dementia might occur as the disease spreads out to involve other nerve cells. To this day scientists still don’t know for sure what causes Parkinson’s disease.
INTRODUCTION Approximately 36 million individuals have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) worldwide which is the common cause of dementia in the range of higher ages (Alzheimers.net, 2014). About 5% to 8% of people aged above 65, 15% to 20% of people aged above 75 and 25% to 50% of those aged above 85 are affected by Alzheimer’s disease (Duthey, 2013). Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversibly progressive disease of the brain characterised by gradual loss of memory, change in personality and a decline in cognitive functions such as language, perception and reasoning. An individual with Alzheimer’s disease would lose all mental and memory abilities in later stages (National Institute of Aging, 2011). It is believed that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the
According to a site that specializes in providing information about dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, states that “Dementia is a general term for loss of memory and other mental abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is caused by physical changes in the brain.” (Alzheimer’s Association) Whereas Alzheimer’s is a “Type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior.” (Alzheimer’s Association) Generally speaking, one could imagine
Leukoaraiosis, viewed as cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), is common in patients with dementia. They have found a failure of elimination of interstitial fluid (ISF) from white matter, particularly connected with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Pathological studies and discovery of expanded perivascular spaces (PVS) by MRI in the white matter. Whereas, failure of eradication of ISF from the aging brain specifies failure in the disposal of soluble metabolites from the brain, where consequently there is a failure of homeostasis of the neuronal setting with significant consequences for the pathogenesis of dementia (Weller et al.,
Primary head injury is present at the time of the trauma and is seen as a transient or an irreversible damage to the brain but secondary brain injury is usually as a result of accompanying peri-lesional oedema or raised intracranial pressure or parenchymal ischemia affecting varying parts of the brain. These secondary changes can cause tonsillar herniation especially in cases with raised intracranial pressure and may eventually culminate in the death of the patient. [14-15] The current trend of evaluation of patients with head injury includes Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear medicine. However, cranial CT has emerged the mainstay in the diagnostic work-up of patients with head injury, particularly in the initial assessment of the head injured due to its availability, short image acquisition time and its accuracy in the detection of skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage. [15 –
As a result, there is just general treatment to reduce these symptoms, so many people with the disease lose their joint's function. According to the BMJ, "globally, rheumatoid arthritis was ranked as the [42nd] highest contributor to global disability. " Throughout history, many physicians tried to describe rheumatoid arthritis and gave it an accurate name. The first physician that noticed the disease was Landré Beauvais, who examined patients with severe joint pain and then hypothesized that these people had an uncharacterized condition, which Landré named “Primary Asthenic Gout.”  Although
Age Group: 65-75 Environment: Home Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease, meaning memory loss is mild in the beginning, but it worsens over time to the extent that individuals are unable to have conversations or respond to their surroundings. A group of brain disorders that causes the loss of intellectual and social skills brain cells degenerate and die causing a steady decline in the memory and mental function. The likelihood of having Alzheimer’s increases tremendously after the age of 70. There are no genetic risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease is more prevalent in African Americans and Hispanics. Some of the problems of this disease is: Memory lapses ADL’s Medication management Social participation Inability to remember recent
The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease takes place by a death from dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most noticeable symptoms are movement related, including shaking, stiffness, slowness of movement and diificulty with walking & bearing. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly in the advanced stages of the diseases, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problem. Parkinson’s disease is more common in older people, with most causes taking place after the age of
These are two examples of CTE working in real life. Earlier in the paper I talked about the signs and symptoms of CTE. The signs are very hard to notice because they commonly get confused with normal aging. There are four stages to this dangerous disease that affect people in different ways. These stages can lead to death or Dementia.
The injuries that is critical in the areas such as thalamus and hypothalamus region will lead to the vascular dementia. Thus, people with vascular type of dementia tend to have disease of the blood vessels such as tobacco usage, high blood pressure, heart attacks, etc. Mixed dementia: Mixed dementia is another type of dementia, it is the combination of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia or in general it is the conditions where changes can be represented with considering more than one type of dementia which occurs simultaneously in the brain, thus this type of dementia causes 10% of dementia cases. The symptoms of this type of dementia is that it depends on the type of dementia that are occurred simultaneously in the brain but it may have the same symptoms of Alzheimer’s type of dementia. Dementia with Lewy
Concussions are increasingly being recognized as a public health issue. Traumatic brain injuries, like concussions, have short and long term side effects. The long term effects of concussions are not fully known, however, it has been observed that multiple concussions have cumulative effects. (Kutcher et al., 2013). Understanding the effects of concussions on brain activity is key to developing assessments and preventing future injury.
Qualitatively, this disease can be seen with senile plaques on the brain, and neurofibrillary tangles that affect physical changes to the brain. Since there are so many branches of dementia, it can be hard to determine which type of dementia a patient is experiencing, needing to be looked at more closely. Some warning signs of this disease include getting lost, paying for bills and trouble managing money, retelling the same stories, repeatedly asking the same questions, and losing/ misplacing items, but not being able to recall how to find them (532). Though not all people progress through this disease at the same pace and times in their lives, these are just some of the few symptoms and abnormalities that those who have Alzheimer’s can display as opposed to someone their age with a normal functioning brain and having no dementia. Quantitatively, research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 50-70% of all neurocognitive disorders (531).