There are three kinds of DNA with specific functions. First, messenger RNA (mRNA) is responsible for transcribing the information from the DNA. That information is then sent to the ribosomes and cytoplasm. The second, transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the mRNA in a ribosome. The third, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), translates the information from the mRNA and the tRNA.
This organelle can be found both on the rough ER and free in cytoplasm, but the proteins produced in each place have different functions; proteins produced in the cytoplasm are typically used within the cell while proteins produced by the rough ER are usually exported outside the cell. The ribosomes themselves are produced in nucleolus and cells that need a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes . With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that helps move organelles inside the cell, therefore microtubules are attributed with the function of intracellular movement . In addition to the cytoskeleton, microtubules also make up the cilia and flagella of the cell.
Summary Endoplasmic reticulum is a eukaryotic organelle that forms interconnected network of cisternae, vesicles and tubules within the cells[1,2]. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosome free endoplasmic reticulum also know as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, its functions including lipid synthesis, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium concentration[2,3,4]. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum can be isolated from animal soft by centrifugation method and the production form isolation can be used to study the metabolism of lipid and the recovery
The roles are as follows for the bacterial cells, the structure flagella are the swimming movement of the cell, pili stabilizes the cells during DNA transfer, the capsules are used as protection for the cell when a method of killing or digestion is happening. The cell wall confers rigidity and the shape they have, the plasmic membranes are the barriers and the location for the enzyme systems which produces energy. The ribosomes like animal and plant is the factor for protein synthesis. The other functions like the Chromosomes and the plasmid make up the DNA of the cell. Explain how bacteria cells make energy for cellular processes.
They form between 25–50% of the protein-coding genes of the multicellular organisms. The chicken lysozyme gene is an example of a solitary protein-coding gene with four exons and three introns. A genes family, on the other hand, is a group of genes bearing similar features as DNA’s building blocks (nucleotides) (Galluzzi 126). They contain instructions for making new products such as proteins. In some cases, genes are grouped together to form a family on the basis of product-protein interactions to achieve a certain
Enzymes are proteins that significantly speed up the rate of chemical reactions that take place within cells. Some enzymes help to break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Other enzymes help bind two molecules together to produce a new molecule. Enzymes are selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction. The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates.
It is constituting of 2130 coat protein molecules and a single-stranded RNA of 6400 bases. It’s rod like structure is assembled into a helix using the coat proteins and they form a hairpin structure(5,6). The protein monomer has 158 amino acids and assembled into four main alpha-helices that are joined to the central axis of the virus. The virion is 18 nm in width and 300 nm in length and a 4 nm core inside it(in the central part) (5,6,7). The TMV genome consists of 6.3-6.5 kb single stranded RNA and has a 3’ end which a t-RNA like structure and the 5’ end cap is methylated(8).
The measurement was taken at 230nm, 260nm and 280nm. The DNA concentration was calculated by using this formula: DNA (µg/ml) =OD260 x 50 x dilution factor For more accurate reading, we had used NanoDrop™ which directly gave us the DNA concentration. Digestion of DNA with Restriction Endonucleases Two eppendorf tubes were prepared for digestion of plasmid and SOD gene. For plasmid digestion tube, 6µl plasmid DNA, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 10µl distilled water were added. While, 5µl of purified PCR product, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 11µl distilled water were added into SOD gene tube.
n.d.). DNA samples are submitted to a certified laboratory and undergo the following process (DNA Evidence. n.d.): • Extraction is the process of releasing the DNA from the cell. • Quantitation is the process of determining how much DNA you have. • Amplification is the process of producing multiple copies of the DNA in order to characterize it.
The third step is uncoating. Uncoating is when the viral enzymes desolve the virus capsid and expose the viral genome to the host cells chemical factory. The fourth step is known as replication. Replication is when the fusion of the virus messenger RNA, the fusion of virus proteins, and the assembly of replicated genomic material and subsequent protein binding. The fifth step is called post-transitional modification.