Film takes photography to another level. Film, or the cinema “is objectivity in time.” For the first time with film “the image of things is likewise the image of their duration, change mummified as it were”. Bazin argues "only the impassive lens, stripping its object of all those ways of seeing it, those piled- up preconceptions, that spiritual dust and grime with which my eyes have covered it, are able to present it in all its virginal purity to my attention and consequently to my love. By the power of photography, the natural image of a world that we neither know nor can know, nature at last does more than imitate art: she imitates the
In the article, Eisenstein: ‘Intellectual Montage’, Poststructuralism, and Ideology’ written by Jason Lindop, he explains that montage can be seen as ‘a central concern in these works us how a series of images can, when correctly composed by the filmmaker and then interrupted by the viewer, produce and abstract concept not strictly present in each of the composite images.’ (Lindop, 2007). Intellectual montage is when we see different images that are different to each other but can be connected in the conveying of meaning and a metaphor that can be visually seen. In another article written about A Man with a Movie Camera, Eisenstein states its ‘different forms ‘Cinema of Attraction’ and experimented with a form of film editing which attempted to produce the greatest emotional response in a viewer by conflicting two different shots side created by juxtaposition.’ (“Man with the…”,
Are they fiction or nonfiction? Kaleb Stewart wrote an article speaking out about documentaries. He expresses in his writing that they don’t always show the truth. In Stewart’s article “Documentaries Need to be Factual Not Fictional” the author takes the Toulmin approach. He claims that “there is no subtext that allows directors to take the liberty of falsifying information and contorting it to further filify views opposite from their own.” He uses one specific example that he spoke about throughout his writing.
Cryptic scenes like the "Dawn of Man" sequence and ending are presented unadulterated, leaving the audience to decrypt their meaning themselves. Each scene in 2001 is like poetry: both visually beautiful and thought-provoking, resonating with the viewer in a way that transcends language. As Kubrick (1968) himself put it: “I tried to create a visual experience, one that bypasses verbalized pigeonholing and directly penetrates the
Bednarek (2014:126) supports that claim by suggesting that title sequences are to establish the characters, setting, storyline and overall ethos of the film. According to Stanitzek (2009:44) title sequences make use of “distractedness” and “diverging” to allow for an easier transition into the film. Title sequences divide the focus from the play of the film narrative to documenting the production crew (Stanitzek 2009:44). Stanitzek (2009:44) suggests that it achieves this by separating itself from the film as a “film within a film”. Stanitzek (2009:44) explains that title sequences have their own structure; a beginning, middle and end, thus establishing their individuality and coherence from film.
Michael Rossington and Anne Whitehead in their book Theories of Memory (2007) chisels out a sharp contrast between memory and history, preferring memory as the pure and primitive form of history and seeing them almost as opposing entities. An observation made in the movie Mementostates: Memory can change the shape of a room; it can change thecolour of a car. And memories can be distorted. They're just aninterpretation, they're not a record, and they're irrelevant if youhave the facts. (qtd.
Throughout The Culture Industry the authors describe that the viewer cannot decode the message that the messenger is trying to get across, in addition to that they imply that the viewers all receive the same singular message. “The whole world is made to pass through the filter of the culture industry. The old experience of the movie-goer, who sees the world outside as an extension of the film he has just left” (Adorno and Horkheimer, 35). This quote displays the effects that various mediums can have on our everyday lives, and that viewers take the message and relate their real life to a fictional movie or novel. However this is focused on one singular message per
As its name suggests postmodernism refers to a reaction to, as well as a certain rejection of modernism which contained an ‘optimistic belief in the benefits of science and technology to human kind’ (Hayward, 2000). Although postmodernism can never be clearly defined there are specific characteristics and techniques used in films that are attributed to the postmodern style of film-making. The film Natural Born Killers (1994) directed by Oliver Stone contains explicit examples of postmodern textual devices and the opening scene will be used as a case study illustrating the effectiveness and functions of such stylistic practices. In terms of visual techniques and cinematography the scene contains an intended reflection of a media consuming society. The first thing we hear is the song ‘Waiting for the Miracle’ by Rock and Roll Hall of Fame singer Leonard Cohen.
A true successor to avant garde film makers such as Maya Dern or Kenneth Anger, David Lynch attempted to revive avant-garde's aesthetic 'seriousness' against the politics of postmodernism that was simply oblitarating depth altogether. It was inviting viewers to trully offer themselves to cinema and momentarily sacrifise their psychological and emotional bonds so that they can be manipulated and molded by the artist. The audience had also then to accept that as art is incapable of capturing one's own subjective experience it could never fulfil all the questions of the individual. Nor was it's purpose. Arts preoccupation with mystery can feast on the deepest parts of the audience but it's mysteries can also energise something profound within.
, According to the director Martin Scorsese (Goodfellas , Hugo ) " the difference between the documentary and the narrative filmmaking is that narrative filmmaking is a pre-scripted movie with actors. But Documentary filmmaking is capturing reality in some way with the script often written AFTER the shooting has begun .With narrative, the story and script are crafted in the beginning and with documentary, the story (often) unfolds as it happens" . Also there is another difference which is : in the narrative filmmaking the film reflects the director point of view but the documentary suppose to show the reality without intervention from the director except for arranging shots