Introduction: Chronic periodontitis (CP), the commonest type of periodontal disease, it is an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within of the tissues supporting the teeth, progressive loss of attachment and bone loss. It is closely related to several systemic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The link between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be due to infection and inflammation. The periodontal inflammatory state may increases the chronic inflammation present in CKD, thus decreasing renal function. Periodontal therapy may reduce inflammation and improves endothelial function.
INTRODUCTION Success of root canal depends mainly on the elimination of bacteria from root canals. The microorganisms present in root canal plays important role in pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. The bacterial elimination from root canals is obtained by mechanical instrumentation using various irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. Hermann introduced Ca(OH)2 in 1920 which was used as a pulp capping agent. Because of it’s excellent results it is used widely for various endodontic therapy as intra-canal medicaments, sealers, pulp capping agents, apexification procedures, pulpotomy and weeping canals.
As far as the treatments go, Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent that inhibits collagen synthesis and slows the progression of the disease by reducing the amount of connective tissue deposition in the lungs. All of these things that I discovered in my research have served to solidify my understanding of IPF and integrate what I am learning in the classroom with real world
Bone marrow biopsy A bone marrow biopsy is usually done just after the aspiration. A small piece of bone and marrow is removed with a slightly larger needle that is pushed down into the bone. This causes a feeling of pressure and may also cause some brief pain. Once the biopsy is done, pressure will be applied to the site to help prevent bleeding. These bone marrow tests are used to help diagnose leukaemia, but they are also repeated later to tell if the leukaemia is responding to treatment.
Methicillin was the first of these agents used in clinical practice and by convention the term is used when referring to resistance to these antibiotics. S. aureus which remain sensitive to these agents are generally referred to as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Resistant strains of S. aureus are designated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA. MRSA was first reported internationally in 1961 and recognised as a problem in Irish hospitals in the 1980s (HSE 2007). Treatment of infection due to MRSA is complex and it can be difficult to choose the most appropriate antibiotic treatment at the outset and the range of effective antibiotics available to treat MRSA infection is more limited.
Nevertheless, with some diseased states, even magical-couplings, such as it is, have their limitations. The alveolar bone of the mandible once afflicted with periodontitis, wanes in its ability to self repair. Without early intervention, the inevitable consequence, is the regression of periodontal disease, to a non-reversible state. Sustaining the need for further research and development into multitissue regeneration. From our current understanding of the term Osteoimmunology, we have confirmed that the two mainstay cells, the MΦ and MSCs dominate the promotion of bone regeneration.
This article discusses the different aspects of biological restorations Introduction Fractured tooth crowns , Primary teeth with extensive carious lesions are routinely observed in clinical practice. Tooth material loss at an early age may not only lead to establishment of neuro-muscular imbalance leading to decreased masticatory efficacy but also phonetic and esthetic problems, development of parafunctional, psychological problems.1 To restore them is thus a challenge for the clinician. Diverse treatment options are available today like , composite restorations stainless steel crowns, cheng crowns, dura crowns, strip crowns, glastech crowns, pedo jacket crowns etc. Out of the various treatment options available to rehabilitate severely destroyed tooth crowns, conservatively and biologically, several authors have suggested the use of tooth structure as a restorative material. 1,2 The term biologic restoration was introduced by Santos and Bianchi
gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is considered a keystone agent in the etiology of periodontitis due to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. This bacterium has attracted considerable interest as its recovery from adult periodontitis lesions can be up to 50% of the anaerobically subgingival cultivable flora, whereas it is rarely recovered, and found in low numbers from healthy sites.There is a strong correlation between P. gingivalis and chronic periodontitis, and it is suspected to be one of the most important etiological agent in the onset of CP (16). Its chronic persistence in the periodontium is attributed to its ability to evade host immunity without inhibiting the inflammatory response. P. gingivalis is able to modulate the host response by impairing immune surveillance and tip balance from homeostasis to dysbiosis. Several virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis have been reported to contribute to its pathogenicity, including lipopolysaccharide, hemolysin, fimbriae, hemagglutinin and proteinase (17-20).
Prognosis : prognosis of pulp polyp is unfavorable , but is favorable after R.C.T Gangrenous necrosis of the pulp: Untreated pulpitis will result in complete necrosis of the pulp tissue, this is defined as necrosis of the tissue due to ischemia with super imposed bacterial tissue. Clinical features: 1. There may be pain which means there is still some vital pulp tissue left such as another canal. 2. Discoloration of the tooth, because the products of gangrene pass into the dentinal tubule and show through the translucent enamel giving the tooth a greenish-black color.
In the 1960s Mackanes noticed the efficacy of MΦ against bacteria such as Listeria and Staph Aureus, instigating further studies that would eventually highlight the activation of MΦ. Florence Loi (14)and her team investigated the use of various combinations of macrophage (MΦ) phenotypes, i.e., Naïve (Mϕ), proinflammatory, (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages (and their subcategories) co-cultured with the osteogenic properties of pre-osteoblasts. The design of the study was to demonstrate the malleability and heterogeneity that MΦ display, and how they contribute to osteogenesis. Several studies have begun to indicate there is more of a sliding scale for the functionality of these cells, more so than belonging to a fixed active state. Polarisation and plasticity, controlling the physical state of MΦ lends itself to manipulation by way of cytokines or growth factors, allow us to steer the cells to express the most beneificial factor for the current conditions.