In his essay “Arrested Development: The Conservative Case Against Racial Profiling” published in the New Republic on September 10, 2001, professor James Forman Jr. illustrates his disagreement with racial profiling. Forman Jr. is a professor at Yale Law School. He teaches Constitutional Law and seminars on race and the criminal justice system. In his piece, Forman primary goal is to create understanding about the effectiveness of racial profiling and how this affects the black community especially youths. Forman achieves this by appealing to a liberal audience. Moreover, Forman’s essay was published in a newspaper which targeted audience are individuals open to new ideas and opinions, and individuals advocating for social reform. Also, another important aspect is that during his essay, Forman attacks the conservative party which also gives a clear idea of his intended audience. By establishing his credibility
What is discretion? Discretion is the availability of a choice of options or actions one can take in a situation. Police officers have to make an instantaneous decision when they are in a situation. It all depends on the scenario for them to decide whether they want to use deadly force, stop and frisk or writing traffic summons etc. Stop question and frisk are the practiced by which a police officer initiates a stop of an individual on the street allegedly based on reasonable suspicion of criminal activity. Stop question and frisk became effective on July 1, 1964. Three scholarly that I 've used for my research are " 1964, The Right to Investigate and New York 's "Stop and Frisk" Law" by John Ronayne, "1968, Stop and Frisk (A case study in
The act of “Stop and Frisk” began in the early 1900’s when crime rates began to escalate in major cities such as New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. Stop, question, and frisk, or SQF, is an urban policing measure that involves the large-scale deployment of officers in public spaces (e.g., sidewalks, alleys, the communal outdoor spaces of public housing) tasked with conducting frequent investigative stops (Huq, A. Z. (2017).
The severity of racial profiling is very concerning. As proven by numerous texts studied for this Expository Writing class, it is evident that the Black respondents of Otis Johnson’s poll, analyzing citizens’ relationships with the police, are not the only Black people that: “expressed far less confidence than whites in local police to treat both races equally” (Johnson). In White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, Peggy McIntosh describes various privileges which sound ordinary, though surprisingly only White people have. Among them, is one that affects all people on a daily basis: “If a traffic cop pulls me over or if the IRS audits my tax return, I can be sure I haven’t been singled out because of my race” (McIntosh). Governmental
Shannon Sharpe is describing the events displayed on television, newspapers, and on the internet. Although, most people in America will state that racial profiling by law enforcement is minorities complaining based on statistics or perception (Racial Profiling, 2016 ). Thus, racial profiling by law enforcement agencies prevents useful approaches, alienates communities, and impedes public safety (Hubpages and Hubbers, 2009).
The legal system in the United States has been broken since it’s inception, disproportionately attacking, and punishing anyone who is not white. As the country grew, improving, growing prosperous, the broken system continued its work. One result of this broken system is police brutality, and overstepping of police power. In fact, according to a 2013 Pew Research Center survey, of the black people questioned, 70% said they felt they were unfairly treated when dealing with police. This cannot be a coincidence. This has been a problem since the beginning of law enforcement in this country. The incidents of police brutality today and the devaluation of African American lives is related to previous cases
Stop and Frisk, the tactic that has been going on for only for short time, yet there seems to be racial tension already. But is this new information actually true or is it just good policing? According to Heather Mac Donald from the Manhattan Institute, says “what looks like racial profiling might just be good policing”. However according to Ranjana Natarajan from the Washington post “it’s clear that two issues need to be addressed: racial profiling and police use of excessive force.” Unfortunately we cannot have both ways.
Racial profiling can occur when law officials use race to as a basis to suspicion in non-specific investigations. Creating a profile about the different kinds of minorities who commit certain types of crimes may lead officers to focus more on a particular group and act according to the general stereotype rather than particular behavior. An example of racial profiling could be the use of race to regulate which pedestrians to search for illegal goods or the use of race to regulate which drivers to stop for traffic violations, stopping mostly black or brown colored minorities. Stopping black drivers, just to see what law enforcement might discover, has become so frequent in some places that it has it’s own name: driving while black. A year-long study conducted by the Domestic Human Rights Program of Amnesty International USA found that the unlawful use of race in police, immigration, and airport security procedures has expanded since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001. The study further found that state laws provide insufficient and inconsistent protection against
Living in the United States, Americans are living under the premises that citizens can live in a fair and equal state regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, or their national origin. But what happens when this is proven not to be true. Americans have a name for it when it is contrary to them not being treated equal because of race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin. It is called racial profiling; birthed out of criminal profiling. Racial profiling, therefore, is the involvement of law enforcement officers in a discriminatory manner targeting any individual based on race, ethnicity, religion, national origin for suspicion of a crime. It is also noteworthy that omission by law enforcement is a form of racial profiling. The ingredients for racial profiling then are law enforcement, race, targeting, suspicion, omission, and crime. Many innocent Americans are behind bars or dead because of racial profiling and the realization of the September 11 attacks has heightened the reactions of law enforcement against people of color and various religions. Although it is a much talk
In the article “ Jim Crow Policing”, written by Bob Herbert, Herbert writes about the discrimination of young black and Hispanic New Yorkers by the police. This mistreatment of these ethnicity are despicably from cops who are black or Hispanic as well. Statistically from Hispanic, black, and Caucasian, whites are stopped less but usually found with contraband. Than black or Latinos who were frisked for reasons such as having inappropriate attire. Herbert justly believes Jim Crow policies should be abolish.
We live in a society where ethnic minorities are target for every minimal action and/or crimes, which is a cause to be sentenced up to 50 years in jail. African Americans and Latinos are the ethnic minorities with highest policing crimes. In chapter two of Michelle Alexander’s book, The Lockdown, we are exposed to the different “crimes” that affects African American and Latino minorities. The criminal justice system is a topic discussed in this chapter that argues the inequality that people of color as well as other Americans are exposed to not knowing their rights. Incarceration rates, unreasonable suspicions, and pre-texts used by officers are things that play a huge role in encountering the criminal justice system, which affects the way
There has been many controversial issues about the “stop-and-frisk” law. One side believes that it is racially profiling the communities of minorities and the other side believes that it is helping communities rise away from violence. There is a lot of history and background on stop-and-frisk and how it originated in the United States, especially in different places around the world. This law has been very controversial even within the law itself, so controversial states are debating on getting rid of it completely. Many politicians speak on this tactic in both positive and negative ways and the statistical growths and decreases on this topic. Talks about is the stop-and-frisk legal in the United States and they have the fourth amendment on this situation. Terry v Ohio case resulted in the stop-and-frisk issue.
On June, 2013 Ethan Couch a wealthy teen was speeding and caused a crash which he ended up killing four people and injured two. It turns out that his blood-alcohol level was three times the legal limit. He could have faced twenty years behind bars but his attorneys claimed that his affluenza (a product of wealthy, privilege parents who didn’t set rules for him, and doesn’t know right or wrong) made him blameless for his actions. The judge didn’t give him a sentence but ordered for his parents to pay for treatment and got 10 years of probation. His parents agreed to pay $450,000 a year for his rehabilitation. Eric Boyles the man who lost his wife and daughter disagrees and says that money played a role in it because if he didn’t have money the
Racial profiling is a very important issue that individuals in society face every day. This problem occurs in low income or poverty-stricken areas throughout cities and communities across the nation. Hundreds of anecdotal testimonials allege that law enforcement officials at all levels of government are infringing upon the constitutional rights and civil liberties of racial and ethnic minorities through a practice called “racial profiling” (Ward, 2002). So what is racial profiling? According to the National Institute of Justice, racial profiling by law enforcement is commonly defined as a practice that targets people for suspicion of crime based on their race, ethnicity, religion or national origin (National Institute of Justice, 2013). The
The topic for this research proposal project is on community policing, and the factors that are involved in determining if relationships between law enforcement and citizens in these neighborhoods are strained. In order to be successful, community policing must be built on trust, as both civilians and law enforcement must work hand in hand to protect their communities. If there is a lack of trust, then these programs becomes broken, and can therefore lead to other violence and criminal acts.