Second Language Acquisition- A literature review of the critical period hypothesis: are children more prone to learning a second language? The world human beings live in is rising due to an unstoppable tide of technology merging all cultures into one. This requires that individuals learn more than one language to fulfill their vocational and social duties in general. Ever since the beginning of time, individuals used different forms of language to communicate; this has distinguished them from animals, some used drawings, others used letters and finally humanity developed in a way to reach the ultimate idea of language and grammar. Language is one of the major tools of communication amongst human beings; cognitive psychologists thus thrive to
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
Language Acquisition “Natural language constitutes one of the most complex aspects of human cognition, yet children already have a good grasp of their native language before they can tie their shoes or ride a bicycle”. ……… said that: The relative simplicity of acqui-sition proposes that when a tyke makes an "estimate" about the structure of dialect on the premise of clearly constrained proof, the tyke has an uncanny propensity to figure right. This firmly proposes there must be a cozy relationship between the components by which the kid secures and forms dialect and the structure. (p)(3) “Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences
Also, the capacity of the language is specific. The ability to acquire the languages or the child's first language is independent of intelligence. The acquisition pattern is comparatively orderly across children, different cultures and different languages. Language is acquired rapidity and easily, and without the instruction benefit. Children usually show creativity in their input which they exhibition to gain and acquire.
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
Language acquisition In An introduction to language, (Sixth Edition p. 319) Linguistic aptitude develops in stages. These stages are different from one another. There are different stages of language development a child goes through in order to acquire language. Phonological development is the first stage followed by lexical development and syntactic development. The Phonological stage can start at six months and can be a very difficult process for infants to go through and difficult for us adults to grasp or understand.
According to Chomsky's theory, any given language stimuli with the help of this inherent device can develop grammatical rules, which deep structure is universal for all languages (Paraskevopoulos, 1985). This device is developing simultaneously with the brain and needs only a small amount of stimuli in order to activate (Cole & Cole, 2002). This theory explains how infants can learn any language and so quickly, however, other theorists have major concerns about diving language and thought. Also, other linguists claimed that Chomsky's theory is unimaginative because it assumes that language is innate. Furthermore, the existence of a device is not yet proven by biologists and the minimisation of the environmental effects is highly criticised (Gleason,
Humans have been using the language for long centuries. It is very important to communicate with each other in daily life, but how do people acquire the language?! Scientists research in this topic for a long time, and define, acquire language in two categories: first-language acquisition that acquires by listening to the sound in the surrounding environment, then begin to imitate them and producing words, and the second-language acquisition learn the elements of a new language such as vocabulary, grammatical structure, and writing. In addition, there are three theories about the second language acquisition, each one of them has a different view.
1. INTRODUCTION The debate of how language can be acquired has been ongoing for decades now. There have been arguments on how language and cognition is by nature, that is, it is natural and not learned, it is something genetic and innate and certainly not man-made. However some argue that language is acquired through nurture; it is learnt according to the environmental influences and by the society in which one lives in. In this essay I’ll state the approaches to studying language of both Burrhus Frederic Skinner and Aram Noam Chomsky, discuss their differences and similarities, and how Edmund Husserl would respond to them then proceed to compare their positions to that of Husserl.
The learner is conscious that the language is being taught. While acquisition is referred to as the real communication. Language is developing naturally at the acquisition stage and the learner is subconscious that it is taking place. The learner may not know the rules of the language but is able to have a feeling for what sounds right. Hamayan recognizes that “the acquisition of language is a development process and there are predictable stages of language proficiency, and yet the learner may pass through the different stages at different times”.