Reactions in the human body produce hydrogen peroxide as a product (1). Since hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to the human body, catalase catalyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen (2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2) (1). According to the collision theory, a reaction can only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy and with correct geometrical orientation (3). Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles which means that an increase in temperature will increase the speed of the hydrogen peroxide and the catalase molecules which
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
When virions spread to adjacent sensory neurons, a lifelong infection is established (Owen, Crump, & Graham, 2015). Both primary and secondary diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality but thanks to advances in diagnostic and the production of vaccines, it is possible to decrease their burden (Gershon, 2013). 1.1 Varicella: Varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection of VZV, is characterized by cutaneous eruption typically seen in children. In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013). During this primary infection, the virus can be
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
However, regardless of classification, the translocation of pathogens into the peritoneal cavity initiates a cascade of inflammatory responses (Mabewa, Seni, Chalya, Mshana, & Gilyoma, 2015). This response is co-stimulated by mesothelial cells, and characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines (McGuire et al., 2015). In primary peritonitis the infection occurs, but the source of intra-abdominal infection is unidentified, this is known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Secondary peritonitis arises from abdominal trauma, organ damage, occurs secondary to medical procedures, and internal leaks affecting the peritoneum. Likewise, tertiary peritonitis is defined as a recurrent or persistent infection after 48 hours of adequate medical management of secondary peritonitis (Henderson, Nguyen, Said, & Nazzal, 2017).
Similarly, a slower decrease in absorbance corresponds to a low rate of reaction. Through altering the various concentrations of NaCl that Amylase is exposed to, the effect of different NaCl concentrations on rate of reaction of amylase can be determined. Research Question: What are the effects of different sodium chloride concentrations on the rate of reaction of amylase, measured the spectrophotometry. Hypothesis: Sodium chloride, temperature, pH levels are all conditions that affect the activity of an enzyme.
It also has a very thick cardiac muscle wall (myocardium), this is because it needs a strong wall to be able to push the oxygenated blood to all areas of the body. The heart also contains (i) The tricuspid and bicuspid valves- these are situated between the atrium and ventricle. It is there to prevent backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium, it is a one way flow of blood.
BPA can cause serious problems such as brain issues. In addition, the director of the University of Rochester’s Center for Reproductive Epidemiology Shanna Swan found a connection between the exposures of pregnant women to phthalates and changes in baby boys’ genitals (Knoblanch A. and Environmental Health News, 2009). Pregnant women exposure to phthalates mostly comes from plastic, which is linked to alter boys’ genitals before birth. Due to the bad impacts of plastic many countries banned plastic bags such as Bangladesh and Rwanda, which is also one of the cleanest countries in the world, or placed a tax on their use like Belgium, Germany and Italy to reduce the usage of plastic (Cemansky, R. 2014). So, plastic effects human health badly and cause health
The most common white blood cells are called neutrophil, they attack and destroy harmful bacteria that enter the body a. These cells make up 60% of of the white blood cells in the blood stream. C. Broken parts of the cells also help the blood circulation. 1. Platelets are small disk-shaped pieces of cells that are broken off from other cells in the bone marrow 2. Platelets help control bleeding in an interesting process call hemostasis 3.
Local/paracrine hormones are short distance connections of hormone communication. It is one cell releasing chemicals to a nearby cell. Not a direct connection, unlike gap junctions. An example would be between a neuron (brain cell) and a muscle (receptor cell). The neuron would release chemicals to a nearby muscle that would
These isozymes break venlafaxine stereoisomers into several active metabolites and influence the concentrations of the stereoisomers of venlafaxine and its metabolites. Therefore, there is an effect on the activity of the drug as an SNRI. In this particular case, the polymorphisms within CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 alleles make these patients poor metabolizers of venlafaxine, and the resultant increase in venlafaxine in the blood increase the potential for toxicity, which would explain the side effects experienced by these
Research has found that enkephalins are scattered in GABAergic interneurons, with MORs and DORs inhibit granule cells because they are in very distinct subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons (11). On the other hand, dynorphins are in granule cells and dendrites and KOR agonists, which will consist of endogenous dynorphins, decrease long-term potentiation. KORs have also been found to regulate GABA release at the presynaptic sites of the neurons (K- opioid). GABA, being the main inhibitory