Photosynthesis: The Biological Process Of Respiration

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Respiration is the antithesis to the process of photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide and water is taken in by autotrophs, along with sunlight, to make glucose and oxygen. Autotrophs include any photosynthesizing organisms, such as plants and algae, all of whom also undergo respiration. The products of photosynthesis are taken in by heterotrophs, organisms who cannot make their own energy and rely upon autotrophs for food. The by-products of their respiration - carbon dioxide and water - are then used for photosynthesis.

Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface. Gases are constantly required by, and produced as a by-product of, cellular
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These, in turn, lead to ever-finer branches. The branches penetrate to every part of the body. At their extreme ends, called tracheoles, they may be less than 1 µm in diameter. Every cell in the insect's body is adjacent to, or very close to, the end of a tracheole. In some of the flight muscles of Drosophila the tracheoles even penetrate their T-tubules bringing oxygen right next to the mitochondria that power the muscle.

However, water vapour as well as carbon dioxide diffuses out of the animal, and this could pose a problem in dry environments. Drosophila avoids the risk by controlling the size of the opening of its spiracles to match the need of its flight muscles for oxygen. When oxygen demand is less, it partially closes its spiracles thus conserving body water.

Large, active insects like grasshoppers, forcibly ventilate their tracheae. Contraction of muscles in the abdomen compresses the internal organs and forces air out of the tracheae. As the muscles relax, the abdomen springs back to its normal volume and air is drawn in. Large air sacs attached to portions of the main tracheal tubes increase the effectiveness of this bellows like
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One of the most common reasons crabs such as the hermit crab dies in captivity is because crab owners neglect to provide them with this. The difference between marine crabs and land hermit crabs is that land hermit crabs have much smaller gills but also need air to breathe. They must be kept moist to survive but would drown if submerged completely in water. This is why it is also important when keeping them in captivity to provide a broken up piece of sponge in their water dish so that they have something to grasp onto to keep from losing their footing and falling into the water and/or drowning. If the crab’s gills become too dry, the crab will die. Another interesting fact about hermit crabs is that they carry an extra supply of water around in their shells to help keep them

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