Social Identity Theory: Sources Of Teaching Efficacy

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2.1.2. Institutional Identity It is obvious that teachers and instructors, throughout their experience and practice in instructive institutions, develop basically a sense of belonging to their own affiliated educational institutions. According to Brewer (1991), this sense of attachment that mostly instructors grow during their career, is the outcome of numerous influencing factors some of which are mainly informed by social identity theory. For example instructors’ classification of themselves and others as in- and out-groups along with their inclination towards in-group relations (Brewer, 1991). As pointed out by Hogg (2006), the concept of institutional identity is referred to instructors’ state of identification with the organizations…show more content…
Generally speaking, according to social cognitive theory of Bandura (1997), efficacy has two main components. The first component of efficacy is efficacy expectation. As pointed out by Bandura, the efficacy expectation is regarded as a conviction that an individual has the capability, knowledge, and abilities to effectively perform the actions or behavior essential to produce the preferred…show more content…
Sources of Teaching Efficacy According to Bandura (1997), instructor efficacy which is regarded as beliefs in one individual’s competences to establish and implement the courses of action essential to produce given accomplishments, can be primarily derived from four sources of influence. Bandura (1997) proposed theses four main sources of efficacy as: (a) mastery experience, (b) vicarious experience, (c) verbal/social persuasion, and finally (d) physiological/arousal and emotional states. In mastery experience people evaluate their capabilities in accomplishment of tasks and activities that rest on their forgoing success or failure in task/activity-performances. Consequently, the recurrent successful activities and tasks elevate and the recurrent failure experiences decrease efficacy of individuals. The second source of instructor efficacy, as stated by Bandura (1997), is indirect experience, namely, vicarious experience, which is also termed social model or role-modeling. Social modal is the observing and modeling of other individuals’ doings and activities, predominantly if they do not have satisfactory personal

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