Furthermore, positivist researchers are believed to be impartial observers who can evaluate and predict actions or processes objectively. The criteria for judging the quality of such positivist studies as opposed to the interpretive and critical case studies, involve the traditional validity and reliability tests used in the natural sciences (Yin, 2003). Sixthly, Archer (1995) argued that social ontology plays a powerful regulatory role vis-`a-vis the explanatory methodology for the basic reason that it conceptualises social reality in certain terms, such that it helps identifying what there is to be explained and also ruling out explanations in terms of entities or properties which are deemed non-existent. Such consistency between the social ontology and explanatory methodology is a general requirement usually requiring two-way adjustment. This two-way adjustment requires a contingent ontology or philosophy in order to
A vital ideology of participatory research is that it is research approach ‘with people’ rather than conducting ‘research on people’(Heron & Reason, 1997). Chamber (2012: 167) mentions “[Participatory paradigm ] can be drivers and means to personal, institutional, professional and social change [……] Practical priorities are: to foster methodological diversity and enrich the repertoire; […..] to institutionalize critical reflection and focused brainstorming”. Participatory paradigm allows understanding of people’s perspective as it is based on social reality and tries to find out a real solution of an original problem to ensure desirable change. In addition, it deals with the complexity of social settings and can promote a culture of social dialogue and influence policy to changing attitude. So it is applied, exploratory and action oriented.
(2010) found that work attitude of employees has a positive impact on job satisfaction, which would lead to improved moral and performance in the workplace. Yukl (2010) emphasise that transformational leadership behaviours have motivational effects on employees or team members. According to Yukl (2010), effective leadership style influence team members or employees in three key ways; by influencing employees or
Bourdieu explains the aim of habitus saying that he created it as a social framework to analyze and explain the logic of practice simply without any relation to subjectivism and objectivism. He also adds that the other function of habitus is to clear that practice is a product of constructed knowledge not a recorded one. These dispositions direct practices (Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992: 120-121). He assures the fact that it is an open system and exposed to changes and modifications throughout different experiences. Although such a term is not everlasting, the changes may be peripheral.
However, Gellis (2001) & Jude & Piccolo (2004) stated that both leadership styles cannot eliminate one another. In fact, good leaders demonstrate both transformational and transactional qualities (Judge & Piccolo, 2004), connecting the two styles together (Bryant, 2003; Rolfe, 2011). According to Bensimon (1989) transactional leadership is considered as a two-way process of exchange. Leaders gather control because of their job position and their personality, but their power is controlled by the expectations of their followers. On the other hand, Bensimon (1989) consider transformational leadership as a one-way view process of exchange between the leaders and the followers.
The following characteristics of HRM can fortify distinctiveness. Visibility: This measures the transparency of the HR practice. Greater visibility means greater information sharing about the practices which leads to greater awareness. When the system involves a wide range of HR practices such as selection, training and development, performance appraisal, etc Understandability: The practice and the reason for conducting such a practice should be understood by all the stakeholders. Any ambiguity in the system may lead to employees filling the resultant gaps with their perceived practices.
Ontology is primarily concerned with whether the social world is objective or subjective. Objectivity is an ontological position which assumes social actors cannot influence social phenomena and their meanings (Bryman and Bell, 2011). In contrast, constructionism asserts that social actors have a significant impact on the social world. In fact, the essence of constructionism identifies that reality is determined by people and other external factors are insignificant (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 1991). Management accounting can be thought as a complex object, this view is based not only on that individuals interpret management accounting differently.
In this way overall organizational productivity and effectiveness can be enhanced. It is important to develop such an atmosphere where employees are well satisfied with their jobs and cooperative with each other. In this way employees will be in position to utilize their full potential in their jobs. • The research study strongly suggests that the teamwork activities must exists in the organizational environment. In this way employees‟ performance can be enhanced.
In contrast to transcendental phenomenology, this type allows the researcher to explain and interpret the meanings found while studying the phenomenon (Sloan & Bowe, 2014). The primary focus is to understand the meanings of the experience participants attach to it by dealing with the obtained data interpretively (ibid, 2014). This school of phenomenology believe that reduction or bracketing the personal biases are impossible to achieve therefore it aims at the subjective experience of the individuals and try to understand the world as experienced by the people (Kafle, 2011). It believes in the interpretation as a way of understanding and calls description as an interpretive process itself (ibid, 2011). Hermeneutic phenomenology is interpretive in nature which concentrate on the meanings of the experiences and their effects on the individuals (Laverty, 2003).
2.2.3 The Concept of Performance Management It has been claimed that performance management brings a multitude of benefits to the organization and its employees (Roberts, 2014). These include the opportunity to ensure that staff pursue goals that are aligned with the wider organizational objectives set by senior managers; the provision of objective assessment and regular feedback, which it is assumed will improve learning; heightened commitment and motivation; improved career management through the identification of training and development needs; the creation of legal documentation for use in the cases of discrimination, grievance and disciplinary processes or wrongful dismissal; an improved correlation between remuneration and organizational performance, through linking appraisals to performance-related pay; and an overall increase in organizational performance (Folorunso,