Insulin Research Paper

505 Words3 Pages
Insulin, a polypeptide hormone, is one of the most important pancreatic islets, more specifically the islets of Langerhans(named after the scientist who discover them) produced by the beta cells. These cells( beta cells) are mainly responsible for extracting glucose from each carbohydrates and help the body to either use it or store it for later use. Insulin plays a vital role in regulating blood glucose level by preventing it from getting too high(hyperglycemia). Glucose is the main source of energy in the body and all cells of the body need an adequate amount of glucose to function properly. However, this sugar(glucose) cannot penetrate most body cells by simple diffusion (i.e. skeletal and cardiac muscle, and adipose tissue). Here, Insulin…show more content…
These multiple biochemical reaction then triggers the movement of glucose transporter molecule in the cell membrane which allow glucose to enter the cell and be used as an energy source. Insulin also regulates the blood sugar level by causing it undergo an irreversible process called glycolysis which converts glucose into an…show more content…
In response to this decline, pancreas liberate a second islet hormone, glucagon, produced by alpha cells which works opposite to insulin and help the body to regulate the utilisation of glucose and fat. When blood sugar level drops a few hours after eating, the production of glucagon in the pancreas is triggered that stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release back them into bloodstream. This process is known as glycogenolysis. In addition to the conversion of glycogen, glucagon also inhibits the liver from intake of glucose from the bloodstream and keeps glucose levels stable during hypoglycemia. Glucagon also causes the liver to undergo gluconeogenesis, a process that allows it to absorb non-carbohydrates substrate, amino acids, from the blood and convert them into glucose. When the body isn 't provided with the enough nutrients or carbohydrates, body cells turn to fat the storage as a last resort. Glucagon provokes the process of ketogenesis which breaks down fatty acids to release energy and produce ketone bodies as by-product. These ketones are then used by the heart and brain for
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