The draw ring causes the metal to begin flowing plastically and compressing the outer portion of the blank. However, if the draw radius is too large, the metal will be released by the blank holder and wrinkling will occur [10,11]. Sharp radius will hinder the normal flow of the metal and cause uneven thinning of the cup wall, which result in erring. Fig. Deep Drawing Die 2.2 Deep Drawing
The photon that is emitted from this second interaction has a lower energy than the one that caused it. The chemicals that make up the phosphor are chosen so that these emitted photons are at wavelengths visible to the human eye. The difference in energy between the absorbed ultra-violet photon and the emitted visible light photon goes toward heating up the phosphor coating. When the light is turned on, the electric power heats up the cathode enough for it to emit electrons (thermionic emission). These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms inside the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by the process of impact ionization.
4.γ spectroscopy 4.1 principle of the germanium gamma spectrometer The germanium gamma spectrometer’s main part is a semiconductor detector. Semiconductor spectrometer is a radiation detector which use semiconductors as a detecting medium. The semiconductor detector has two electrodes with a certain voltage. When the particles come into the detector, it will form a pair of electron and an electron hole. Since the electrodes have a certain voltage, thus the electron will be forced to move in the circuit and form a pulse signal.
Throughout the experiment, there was a struggle to keep the heat stable which led to inaccurate data. Additionally, while changing the receiver from cyclohexane to toluene there was a loss of distillate which also led to the errors observed in the data. Furthermore, if more data were collected for each compound it would be a better representation of the experiment's results. If these errors were avoided, then the experiment would be more efficient in distilling the two compounds from each other and the plateau would be as sharp as figure 6 in the lab
These types of loading can cause material fatigue due to dislocation of the atomic structure of the raceway material, which leads to formation of fatigue. These wear particles circulate along the surface of the raceway, which leads to increasing in wear rate. Fig 2: Types of wear mechanisms Abrasion: Difference in the hardness of the material, which are in contact leads to abrasion. The harder material acts on the softer material abrasively by making roughness (channelling, scratches, etc.) on the surface of the softer material by penetration.
Rapid prototyping processes are additive manufacturing processes in which raw material is added layer by layer. The major disadvantage of rapid prototyping is inability to use metals. But there are some materials that posses the properties of metals and also suitable to be used as raw material in rapid prototyping process. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a thermoplastic most suitable for cam shaft manufacturing by rapid prototyping. Using this manufacturing method the space required and the cost required for manufacturing can be reduced.
Even if the laser power is low it can be hazardous to the person 's eyesight, Moderate and high-power lasers also can be hazardous because they can burn the retina of the eye and cause permanent damage in seconds. Lasers can also cause damage in biological tissues, both to the eye and to the skin. 5.1. Laser radiation hazards Thermal effects laser radiation injury, but photo-chemical effects can also be of concern for specific wavelengths of laser radiation. Some lasers are so powerful that can hazardous the eye.
They also have high energy density than conventional capacitors. Supercapacitors are composed of two electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution. Main difference between supercapacitor and normal capacitor is supercapacitor provides high specific surface area with thinner electrodes as compare to normal capacitors . Thus energy storage in double layer capacitor results from charge separation in thin layers formed between a solid conducting surface and liquid electrolytes containing ions. In supercapacitor charge does not accumulate between two conductors, but in between surface of conductor and electrolyte.
The conventional methods are expensive and are not very effective. Thus bioremediation is the need of the hour. Bioremediation uses living organisms to degrade or remove the pollutants from a contaminated site. It is defined as “Treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances” (EPA). The environment has the inbuilt tendency to degrade the waste which is known as intrinsic bioremediation.