Integrative Motivation In Foreign Language

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Introduction Motivation has been an important research topic for over 30 years due to its importance in understanding why people make certain decisions and how much effort they put into those decisions.Motivation represents one of the most appealing complex variables used to explain individual differences in language learning(Macintyre, 2001). Learning a foreign language is different from learning other subjects, mainly because of the social nature of such a complex venture. Language belongs to a person’s whole social being; it is a part of one’s identity and is used to convey this identity to other people. Learning a foreign language involves far more than simply learning different skills, or a system of rules or grammar; it involves…show more content…
Gardner and MacIntyre (1993) have referred to these two types of motivation as motivation orientations and mentioned that depending on learner’s orientation (either career/ academic-related “instrumental” or socially/culturally-related “integrative”) different needs must be fulfilled in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT).What is worthy of note is that the two orientations are not mutually exclusive. It is also theorized that “integrative motivation typically underlies successful acquisition of a wide range of registers and a native-like pronunciation” (Finegan, 1999: 568). While both integrative and instrumental motivation are essential elements of success, it is integrative motivation which has been found to sustain long-term success when learning a second language (Taylor, Meynard & Rheault ,1997; Ellis, 1997; Crookes ,1991). In some of the early researches conducted by Gardner and Lambert, integrative motivation was viewed as being of more importance in a formal learning environment than instrumental motivation (Ellis,1997).Unlike the binary approach proposed by social psychologists,cognitive psychologists have suggested three major types of…show more content…
Extrinsic Motivation: It refers to the urge to engage in learning activity due to some external incentives. It is conditioned by practiced consideration of life with all its attendant sense of struggle, success or failure. Thus extrinsic motivation is associated with lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety compared to intrinsic motivation (Kumaravadivelu, 2006). 3. Achievement Motivation: On the other hand, refers to the motivation and commitment to excel. It is involved whenever there is competition with internal or external standards of excellence. It is a specific motive that propels one to utilize one’s fullest potential. The driving force for achieving excellence can be either intrinsic, or extrinsic or a combination of both(Deci,1975;Deci& Ryan, 1985;McClelland,Atkinson,Clark& Lowell, 1953).AS discussed above, motivation maybe intrinsic, as in the case of anxiety, need to achieve self-concept, and aspiration, or extrinsic, as in the case of sociocultural influences and social reinforces (Swartz,
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