Evolution Of Intelligence Theories: The Evolution Of Intelligence

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3.1 Evolution of Intelligence Theories
Intelligence was earlier thought to be connected with intellect and cognition. So, it was supposed that there was only one form of intelligence which was named as general intelligence. Based on this concept, a person was understood to be born with a certain intelligence which could be assessed by using short answer test (IQ tests). Psychologists also believed that this intelligence was hard to change.
French psychologist Alfred Binet was the one who developed the first successful test of intelligence in response to a request by French public school authorities for a test that could pinpoint school children who are at a risk of underperforming in comparison to their peers in academic achievement. He
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This shortcoming to differentiate social intelligence as a specific intellectual concept, led to a decline of interest in this theory. However, it was later revived with Guilford’s “Structure of Intellect model” in 1967.

Sooner or later, the general public also acknowledged the significance of social intelligence. When Sternberg and his colleagues (1981) asked to list the qualities which the laymen considered necessary in an intelligent person, behaviours like making fair judgments, sensitive to others’ needs, displaying interest in the society at large, admitting mistakes, etc. were listed out (Kihlstrom and Cantor, 2000).

Due to the curiosity induced by these findings, Peter Salovey a professor of psychology from Yale University and John Mayer a professor of psychology from the University of Hampshire, took the research ahead and put forward the concept of “Emotional Intelligence” (EI).

Salovey and Mayer (1990) affirmed emotional intelligence as a subset of social intelligence and defined EI as a – “capability to watch one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to distinguish among them and utilise this information to guide one’s thinking and
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But, theologists, psychologists, philosophers, scientists and researchers have developed and are still bringing in various theories which attempt to estimate bottomless expanse of intrigue and fascination of emotions. While theologists study emotions or rather control of emotions as means of realizing the Supreme Being, the psychologists and sociologists have discussed emotions against its significance to the individual and society. While, the natural scientists like physiologists are more interested in the origin, evolution and functions of emotions. Human beings are a totally different species composed of emotions and reason. Whereas reasoning enables them to judge things with mathematical precision, emotions help them to understand and empathize with fellow beings, which make them
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