The American school system is dependent on grades. However, has one ever stopped to question why? Peter Airasian, a measurement expert, explains that educators use grades primarily for administrative purposes and to give students feedback about their progress and achievement. Yet such a system directly contradicts the intended purpose and instead fosters an environment of compliance and shortcuts. Students become so concerned with achieving the highest possible grade they disregard learning and resort to alternative methods of obtaining it.
However, Piaget disagreed with the construction of the test and set about designing his own which led to the birth of the cognitive development theory that was based around a concept of constructivism and the knowledge attainment of children. The theory was groundbreaking and changed the common assumptions at the time as it was based around three unique concepts: schemas; assimilation and accommodation, and the cognitive development stages of children. This theory has been adopted worldwide as an essential tool for assessing child development, but as the theory is now almost 100 years old, this paper set out to examine it against contemporary research to see whether it is still a valid classroom theory. The Developmental Stages Piaget claimed that all children were
He claimed that the important differences subsist between the labels even to the “dyslexic students” and to those who “needed glasses.” His research also suggests that not all labels are regarded equally and “the specific learning disability labels affect the perceptions of the labeled individual differently” (p. 11). The findings of Ercole’s (2009) study indicate that labeling in the classroom setting is a real happening especially when the students shift to the more advanced levels of education. His study inspected how labeling theory can unavoidably be utilized in the classroom to explain the concepts of the “deviant academic vs. deviant criminal behavior” (p.
The G factor can be measured by an IQ test 2. The G factor is a good indication of school performance Disadvantages/weakness of Charles Spearman’s theory: 1. The backlash and criticism regarding how the G factor only measures General Intelligence 2. The G factor doesn’t take into account other various activities such as motor abilities, perception and musical abilities. HOWARD GARDNER: MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE Multiple Intelligence: Howard Gardner (1943-current) originally identified and stated that there are 7 (later 9) specific types of intelligence.
Children at the end of the programs show poor levels of achievement after the basic knowledge of the national stander testing, without taking into account the improvement of children in the social and intellectual maturity. If we analyze for a moment that determination of a national program taken from a test, our consideration could leave a hole in the study of the universe whether including or not how far it reaches the whole program of Head Start. An example: can be interesting point is the behavior of children at the beginning of the program who showed high levels of aggressiveness and shyness, and at the end of the program their behavior improved socially, participative, and cooperative, these will help the cognitive development at the end o
Thus, certain educational establishments have created exclusively male and female schools, resembling the historical equivalent of only-male schools. Although some educational institutions have attempted to segregate students by sex, coeducational institutions provide students with the most efficient academic learning environments. To battle the rising concern for the United States’ future of education, some institutions have implemented single-sex classrooms. Students from the United States have portrayed a lack of competency with other global students in areas such as mathematics, reading, and science subjects. International statistics portray this trend: “The most recent PISA results, from 2015, placed the U.S. an unimpressive 38th out of 71 countries in math and 24th in science” (Desilver, 2017, para.
Intelligence can be defined as the ability to learn new things or to adapt to new situations and environments. The earliest attempts to measure and quantify intelligence was by French psychologist Alfred Binet in the early 1900’s (Myers & DeWall, 2018, pp. 443). After France passed laws requiring kids to go to school, he was commissioned to create a standardized test to predict a school child’s future progress by finding out the “mental” age of the kids (pp.443). He is famously known for successfully developing and practical solving questions that predicted future school achievement (pp.443).
.4.2 Studies on Ambiguity Tolerance As mentioned previously, the effects of ambiguity tolerance on speaking ability has not been investigated by any research studies; however, its effects on different aspects of language learning has been investigated. Among the earliest studies in this regard the research done by Naiman et al. (1987), in which they found that ambiguity tolerance was a powerful predictor of the success of high school learners of French in Toronto. In another study done by Chapelle and Roberts (1986), it was revealed that learners with a high level of ambiguity tolerance were more successful on language tasks in general. A few studies (Chapelle, 1983; Horng-Yi, 1992; Khajeh 2002; Mori, 1999; Yea-Fen, 1995) also investigated the possible effects of ambiguity tolerance on learners’ achievement in general
A child coming from low socioeconomic status and the one coming from a high income group will definitely show a huge difference in the intelligence tests with which the high income groups are more familiar. But the mainstream researchers have neglected the factors with which they are not familiar such as the difference between the cultural disposition and the intellectual ability of the child. Student’s lack of motivation in schools is interpreted by the mainstream educational psychologists as an “inability or lack of intelligence”. Not only, poor performance of students from low socioeconomic status is labeled as “Inferior” (Oakes, 1988; Nightingale, 1993; Deyoung, 1989; woods, 1983), by the teachers but also children are often categorized on the basis of their attitudes towards school, manners etc. One has to reject such medical model approach that view ability/disability as genetically defined.
(2015) set up a study that relied more on the perceived feedback of teachers to students. While, again, positive feedback does not constitute the main focus of this study, it does include the human aspect of perception. Feedback needs to be perceived by the students in such a way that the teachers intended it to be. The goal of the researchers was to find out the importance of homework, more specifically, they wanted to determine if there was an association between perceived teacher feedback and the students’ homework-related behaviors and academic achievement. To measure teacher feedback, the researchers asked the 454 participating students to fill out a survey that asked the students to rate their teachers, in general, on a five-point scale which included questions such as whether the teachers provide positive reinforcements for completed homework or allowed students to go over their homework in class.