Intelligence Trends In Intelligence

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The first attempts of defining intelligence can be found in the Ancient world, where philosophers as Plato or Aristotle initiated the unfinished research on this topic. Since then, many people have postulated their own theories not only about what intelligence is but about its components too.
From Aristotle’s definition of the intellect in De anima as “essential nature activity [...] it alone is immortal and eternal . . . and without it nothing thinks” to Cattel’s (1987) view of general intelligence as a conglomeration of over 100 abilities working together in various ways in different people to bring out different intelligences, trends in intelligence viewpoints have varied immensely. This variability in theories and tendencies makes very
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McGrew (1997) and Flannagan (1998) proposed the first version of this model, which has been constantly reviewed up to recently. Indeed, in 2012 Schneider and McGrew finally stated that there are 16 broad cognitive abilities, including fluid and crystallized intelligence (stratum II), and over 70 narrow abilities (stratum III), all of them composing g or general intelligence (stratum I).
This structure has been scientifically proved by factor analysis, as well as by developmental, heritability and neurocognitive evidence (Horn & Blankson, 2005). But how do these abilities distribute over the general population?
Intelligence has been estimated by psychometric tests such as the WAIS or Raven’s Matrices, reporting what is called the Intelligence Quotient index (IQ index). Numerous studies have shown the same result: scores on IQ follow a Gaussian distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. However, as we all know, scores on intelligence are not deterministic, so what does it suppose to have a high score on an intelligence test? Does it correlate in any way to real-world
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However, still others keep trying to prove that this relationship is causal (Laidra, Pullmann, & Allik, 2007), stating that student academic achievement heavily relies on general intelligence level. Another point of view less popular is that academic achievement and intelligence are non other that the same construct. Nonetheless, although there is controversy about the type of relationship between these two constructs, it is clear that there is a correlation between

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