Defining intelligence is a very difficult proposition and one which Alan Turing attempted to avoid answering as regards machine intelligence in the Imitation Game which has become known as the Turing Test (Turing, 1950). He posed the question “Can machines think?” which is he developed to ask if machines are able to converse in a way that can persuade humans they too are human. A machine is declared to have passed the test if human judges are unable to tell the difference between a human and a computer through a typed conversation. He suggested that a machine that persuades 70 per cent of human judges after five minutes of conversation should be deemed to have passed the test. The Turing test has become the most widely accepted test of artificial intelligence and the most influential.
This article mainly focuses on the language transfer and fossilization, while also discussing the way in which error analysis and error correction can be improved through understanding of the concept of interlanguage. Moreover, native speaker norms, as well as international varieties of English are also discussed in this research. I believe that the research conducted by Nickel is a great addition to this bibliography because it allows some insight into the significance of the interlanguage phenomenon and helps to gain better understanding of the way in which it affects L2 learning and how it is perceived by others. Moreover, it helps to speculate about where it stands in regard to other varieties of English language and mentions a few instances in which interlanguages became institutionalized by people in certain countries. Rose, H., & Galloway, N. (2017).
They develop both concrete working practices and theoretical assumptions. Although practitioners of interaction analysis come from various disciplines and use, the results of their analyses for different aims share more or less obvious perception of the world that is shown and supported by the work of doing this kind of analysis. Moreover, they hold a common set of opinions about how to access that world. There is not still an obvious constitution of these framing assumptions and there is likely to be lack of agreement about which assumptions are more or less essential. In spite of that, it is important to begin to make the theoretical grounding of our work
If a human answered the question like that, the one asking the question would simply think "He must think the weather is great and want to go to Coney Island, and has good memories of Nathan's." The one asking the question would not think, "What kind of response is that? Is he even human?" The Turing Test seems to have two inherent limitations on its effectiveness, the imagination of the programmer and the imagination of the one asking the questions. If we want to consider "stumping" someone with a question that they would not be able to answer to be our condition for discerning the difference between a machine and a human, then humans would fail to be considered a human all the time.
Turing defined intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator. Roughly speaking, the test he proposed is that the computer should be interrogated by a human via a teletype, and passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or a human at the other end. For now, programming a computer to pass the test provides plenty to work on. The computer would need to possess the following
This chapter attempts to discuss the basic consideration of this research regarding the strategies in translating idiomatic expression followed by the research question and the research objective. It also explains the significances of the research in terms of theoretical and practical equipment. Basic consideration Every language has its own idioms which probably have no literal meaning into another language. Idiomatic expressions itself are expressions of cultural-bound (Al-Rushaidi et al, 2016), and every culture of different county takes different perspective from others. Idiomatic expression is easily to discovery in several works of English, particularly in literature works i.e.
• Passive and boring lessons. • One way communication. 3.2.8 INDUCTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH Neuman (2003: 51) affirms inductive research o begin with detailed observations of the world, which moves towards more abstract generalization and ideas. In other words, when following inductive approach, beginning with a topic, a researcher tends to develop empirical generalizations preliminary relationships as he progresses through his research. Inductive approach starts with the observations and theories are formulated towards the end of the research and as a result of observations (Goddard and Mellville, 2004).
It is a mistake to conclude that the Turing Test has proved that the computer can think. The Test is simply a way of deciding whether it appears to think about the task in question. If it does appear to think then we can say as a matter of definition that the computer displays artificial intelligence. To sum up, the Turing Test should be seen as a way of defining whether or not the computer displays 'artificial intelligence', not for deciding whether it actually thinks. And the display of 'artificial intelligence' by a computer does not prove its possession of fundamental beliefs or of self-consciousness.
Changes of knowledge management may result enhancement the workplace, the management and operational practices. Development of artificial intelligence technologies will influence future changes in knowledge management The rational of the study is very important as it gives the motive to the research for identifying the evolution of Artificial Intelligence in knowledge management. It is the very first paper to mention the segmentation capability and the destruction capability. It gives fresh ideas and theories to the knowledge management field. There has been little attempting about what will be the trend of implications that artificial intelligence may give to the knowledge management.
The issue are what impacts is artificial intelligence providing for the knowledge management, by what means would we be able to evaluate the suggestion and which modifications in future might show up in knowledge management? Research studies are created in order to provide solution for such inquiries to distinguish future research. At the point, a thought is appeared, artificial intelligence framework might gain after their oversights and acquire a higher human vision or sight as every single person does not imagine that it might create a great