War broke out in 1914 due to forces that had been building up in Europe for years. While the Allies blamed Germany for the war too harshly, its actions certainly did directly contribute to World War I, as did those of Austria Hungary. However, each country involved fostered militarism in their country, and became in entrenched in the web of alliances and race for imperial power, all causes of the environment that led to the Great War. Therefore, it could be said that all European countries were responsible, in part, for World War I, as reflected in Documents 5, 6, and 7. Militarism, the glorification of the military, affected most of Europe at the turn of the twentieth century as demonstrated by Documents 1 and 7.
However, his trust and devotion to the Wehrmacht began to waver, beginning with end of the German invasion of Poland, a movement that occurred in 1939. The conquest of Poland, also referred to as the September Campaign, had involved the German army, along with the Slovak Republic, and eventually the Soviet Union, collectively invading Poland, and resulting in the German annexation of the western part of the country. During the invasion, Stauffenberg was still an avid supporter of the Nazi party, partly because of the nationalistic aspects of
Nationalism in the 19th century truly set the boundaries for Europe’s newly reformed nations. With technological innovations like the steam engine and Maxim rifle European countries now held a power truly feared by others. With this power, they began to triumphantly expand all over the world. Africa was the country that bore the most sufferable pain. Europe imperialism over Africa resulted in situations where people like King Leopold completely abused and mistreated entire African tribes.
As a product of the Revolutions of 1848, European sentiment towards Nationalism grew extensively among the middle and lower classes. European ethnic groups and nations desired a self-determined state that represented their group and culture. As a result, both Germany and Italy would experience unification movements within several decades. By 1871, the Italian states would be unified under the Italian tricolour flag; and in the same year, the German states would become integrated into Germany under Wilhelm I of Prussia. Nationalism is both a political and social system in which the nation-state is of utmost importance -- in which nation-states act in their own self-interest and are of full sovereignty.
The first thing Gustav did when the Danish were forced out was to impose taxes on the church. There were debts to Lubeck that needed to be paid and the Catholic church had the money to do it. This would later lead to the reformation in Sweden. Aside from having debts to pay off, Vasa didn't quite like the idea of a power that had just as much or more than what he had as king, though, he did sympathize with the need of church services. This led to the spread of Lutheranism throughout the country but Sweden didn't accept it as the national religion until 1544, because of the change to Lutheranism, there was a revolt from 1542 to 1543, started by Anti-Lutheran's.
In the late 1800s, Europe was scrambling to conquer vast amounts of land. Imperialism had swept the continent by storm, with many countries vying for pieces of Africa and Asia to control. From 1880 to 1900, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy fought for African possessions and by 1900, nearly the whole continent had been split and placed under European rule. There was plenty of motivation for Europeans to conquer the world, and while some supported it, others didn’t. Most people in Europe at this time held ethnocentric views toward the “uncivilized” cultures in the world.
Europe had colonized approximately 90% of the continent by 1914, ignoring how unjust not seeking African participation had been. African leaders had no representation during the proceedings to divide their land. With only the countries of Liberia and Ethiopia remaining independent, Europeans were at their height. The first main driving force for European imperialism in Africa was political competition. European political rivalry for Africa’s land only intensified the already tense situation, giving further reason for European countries to colonize Africa.
The Congress of Vienna is a testament to the powers in Europe’s ability to fight against a lack of balance in power. As France was on its way to becoming a dominant European superpower; this fruitful domination branched from the relentless and power-hungry nature of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon Bonaparte ripped Europe apart with the creation of the Napoleonic Wars. In the beggining Europe was able to fight back against Napoleon’s efforts to extend France’s power. Bonaparte’s early militarily conquests started with the conquering of Belgium, in which Austria and Britain attempted to fight to French army in the defense of Belgium.
In the first half of the twentieth century, Europe suffered incessant and unprecedented detrimental effects of their political decisions. They were inciting the wars. Wars seemed to be a normal method for the countries to protect their territories and interest and solve the conflicts, but the wars like World War One and World War Two which happened in the first half of the twentieth century were different from others. They are the closest counterfeits of total war, in which the countries engaged devote themselves to war by total mobilization, sacrificing lives, or other ways like economically and socially to fight for a victory. The distinction between soldier and civilian seemed to be continuously eroded amid the wars.
“New Imperialism” is a term that characterizes the time period between 1881 and 1914 of the second half of European colonial expansion and conquest. Over the course of this period occurred long occupations, divisions, and the colonization of African territory by European powers known as the “Scramble for Africa” due to competition between countries such as Britain, France, and various other European countries for colonial expansion. Because of European intervention and imperialism in Africa, there is no doubt that an effect would be generated, whether it be violent or non-violent, against European power. Due to Europe’s “Scramble for Africa,” African’s took a wide range of action such as allowing European colonization (Docs 1, 9), rebelling through violent means (Docs 5, 4, 8), and by unifying and standing up peacefully to European power (Docs 2, 3, 6, 7). Preceding the second half of European Imperialism, a large portion of Europe held more prominent power than the vast majority of Africa due to their technological and economic advantages from the Industrial Revolution which did not influence Africa as much as it did Europe, and in view of this perspective, many Africans simply succumbed to European power as they could not compete where they did not compare.