Two prominent authors are known for their argument of self-control being the primary cause of crime. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) assert that self-control is the prominent cause of crime and is also linked to an array of life outcomes and behaviors (see Evans et al. 1997). Their work also suggests that low self-control has societal consequences that shape an individual's ability to succeed in social institutions and to avoid or form social relationships. Like minded criminologists argue that the relationship between crime and social failure is apparent.
There are several stigmas and labels that are placed on individuals within the criminal justice system, especially afflicting with those who are members of gangs or crime related activity. Labeling is known to be a product of the 1960 time period, which examines and explains the behaviors that are considered deviant only when society starts to labels them as deviant. “ Labeling theorists ask (1): What is defined as deviance? and (2) Who is defined as deviant? In answering these questions, the theory addresses larger issues such as: Who makes the laws in the first place?
The next key factor of the chapter is the social process theory. This theory considers the social connections and they situations this juvenile may face because of these connections (p. 125). This theory is broken down into the learning theory and the social control theory. The learning theory holds the assumption that delinquents commit crime because they learn from others around them. They find ways to defend themselves because of the acts of others (p. 125).
Nonetheless it is imperative while examining crime to consider various issues which bring up a few significant issues with respect to the way crime is seen in the society. Investigating inquiries, for example, who makes the tenets of society (laws) and why, is imperative as any response to this inquiry is supported by examination on social power, political power, class distinction and the way crime is socially constructed. Social standards and values fluctuate fundamentally crosswise over diverse societies, religions and social orders. Despite the fact that it can be said that when these social norms are upset, the "breaking" of social "principles" can be unlawful, in which case it turns into a demonstration of crime, it is likewise essential to separate in the middle of crime and deviance which both incorporate the violation of social standards (Akçomak and ter Weel,
Other essential aspects for defining a “gang” are flashing hand signs, identifying by specific colors or gang emblems and using a juvenile delinquency refers to of violations ranging from minor offenses, communities and society have to deal with underage drinking accidents, vehicle theft, smoking, reckless driving, assault, vandalism, and prank calls. Some of the causes and conditions of delinquency are obvious: poverty, drugs, gangs, abuse and neglect. We are confronted by a society that is becoming more complex, more mobile and more dysfunctional. Such as, teen pregnancy, suicide, smoking and running away. Americanbar.org There are many reasons kids go down the wrong path.
Introduction I will begin my essay by looking at what is meant by juvenile delinquency, then research from various sources to give me an insight into some of the social backgrounds of young offenders and reasons why they get involved in criminal activity and the juvenile justice process in Ireland. With the Irish prisons rapidly filling to capacity and rising juvenile crime levels, Ireland appears to be shifting slowly away from a ‘prison and punishment’ ethos, to a more positive ‘prevention’ ethos. This new ethos challenges the notion that prisons are ultimately solution to crime. Ireland certainly appears to be taking this on board when dealing with juveniles. I will also look at the involvement of the Gardai in diversion and then look at
Researchers have invested decades worth of time and data, attempting to answer the question of what causes crime. The study of criminological theory contains a great number of explanations, focused on discovering why exactly, crime occurs. Whether causations are biological, psychological, or sociological in nature, theory has lead us closer to answering the question of why crime happens. Perhaps causations are best explained using hybrid explanations that include a little bit of everything. A significant part of theory focuses on delinquency and the domino like effect of deviant behavior that results for children into adulthood.
Violence and crime in schools is threatening nowadays of the young people in Malaysia. Eventhough national efforts to restore a culture of learning and teaching, incidents of theft, burglary, vandalism, gangsterism, rape and even murder are reported on school grounds. Before we drive into the issue of gangsterism, let’s try to make a difference between gangs and gangsterisme. Gangs are not so bad but gangsterism absolutely is bad. According to Oxford dictionary, the term of ‘‘Gangsters’’ can be defined as – A member of group of violent criminals and Gangsterism can be described as the use of trikery associated with gangsters, as threatening or violence, in order to achive something.
Other weakness includes criminalization of social policy and unfair stigmatization where for criminalization of social policy which means “funding for social intervention projects becomes dependent on crime prevention outcomes rather than seen as a social good in its own right” (Knepper, 2007 cited by Evans, 2010), where initial aim of social policy focusing on human welfare has been replaced by desire to control crime in areas like housing and education while unfair stigmatization or labelling occurs as a result of focusing on the at risk groups or communities which lead to the problem of stigmatizing participants as delinquent or even condemnation of the entire neighborhood as “being prone to crime and outside normal group behavior” (Evans, 2010,
CHAPTER TWO 2. Theoretical Perspectives on Youth Violence 2.1 Introduction Youth violence is viewed in this study as a social problem rooted in structural and socio-cultural and socio-political influences, rather than as individual pathology or flawed interpersonal relations alone. Thus, because social values and cultural norms shape youth violence and provide meaning and direction for this phenomenon, researchers should consider cross-cultural studies and social group differentiation in youth violence manifestation, to be able to identify and apply appropriate and successful remedies, given the cultural diversity in Ethiopia. 2.2 The subculture of violence It is possible to tackle this complex issue of youth violence and bring change