Cultural Differences in Child Attachment and The Universality of Attachment Theory Although attachment theory has been widely accepted, its universality is controversial. Some research support its validity across cultures, some do not. The main critique about the universality of attachment theory is that it is based especially on research that is conducted in Euro-Western populations. This causes suspicions about whether attachment theory is valid across diverse cultures. In this paper, I will present a literature review of four cross-cultural research to examine the universality of attachment theory.
Implications about language and thought to bilingualism Many people are bilingual or multilingual, speaking two or more languages with very different structures. Speakers from different culture and background tend to spread and have different perspectives and various form of structure of language they acquired. This affect the language and thought of the bilingualism. It is generally correct which language reflects the idea that language can influence thought. Studies concluded that bilingualism had negative effect on one’s linguistic, cognitive and educational development (Francois Grosjean, 2011).
Cultural relativism asserts the fact that each culture has its own type of coherent understanding (Heintz 2009 : 5.) In other words, a culture must be judged in context of its history, origin as well as the people who follow it. There are many examples that exist in various cultures where practices can be often viewed as primitive and often
The study is based on McCrae and Costa’s five factor personality theory. According to McCrae and John (1992, as cited in John & Srivastava, 1999), personality is divided into classifications: (1) McCrae and Costa (2008) with Mondak (2010) (as cited in Badgaiyan & Verma, 2014) defined Openness as a characteristic with a broad set of interests determining a flexible viewpoint, this depicts the proliferation of original and imaginative ideas; (2) Conscientiousness refers to the characteristics of individuals who embody punctuality, orderliness, and self-discipline (McCrae & Costa, 1997, as cited in Hirsh & Dolderman, 2007); (3) Extraversion was described by McCrae and John (1989, as cited in McCrae & Costa, 1992) as a personality trait of people
The theory of Hofstede says that the framework of cross cultural communication it’s described the effects on the culture of the society on the values of its members. Culture has been unclear in a many ways, Hofstede also says that culture as collective programming of the mind it is distinguished group or category of people from another. Also, he explains culture as the software of the mind and he identifies 3 aspects of human mental: human nature, personality and culture. Trompenaas definition is a model of differences in national cultures that model, it’s included 7 areas that are used to identify how people from different nations and cultures are interrupted with each others. The 7 areas are 1: Universalism-particulars 2: individualism- collectivism 3: specific- diffuses 4: neutral- emotional 5: sequential- synchronic 6: achievement- ascription and 7: internal- external control.
Honours is General Linguistics Theme 1: Language and Communication in Diverse Contexts Assignment Jenna Crossley 17402468 Task 1 Communicative competence in intercultural communication can be discussed in terms of components of intercultural communicative competence, the criteria for establishing intercultural communicative competence, and sympathy and empathy as possible determiners of intercultural communication. Three components of intercultural communication competence include the knowledge blocks component, the mindfulness component and the communication skills component. The knowledge blocks component entails a process of understanding intercultural communication concepts on a deeper level with the aim of being able to place oneself
The majority of the EU Member States have some form of collect redress mechanism but the problem lies in the fact that they differ from member state to member state. Up to this point they have proven to be “limited in scope
The pattern is not that prevalent those such as good and evil, a journey, quest, or death and rebirth, but the situation is recurrently employed by many authors. In this paper, I will examine the situation of Seven Sleepers as archetypes even if there are some differences in details. Furthermore, one can argue that although
But, there is not a clear and widely accepted definition of this concept mainly because this term has a metaphorical origin and also different disciplines have used it frequently in their research approaches (Borgatti et al., 2009). This is one of the important factors that lead to improvement of business performance (Li, Cui & Li, 2008). Networks provide access to resources like capital (Aldrich H E, Martinez M A, (2000)) , power and influence (al, 2008). Organizations need different relations to gain access to knowledge and information about innovations, investors and markets (Aldrich H E, Martinez M A, (2000)). The term network is not always used to describe the inter-organizational relations.
As a result , the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages ( Old English , Old Norse , Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern language) superimposed upon one another. These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions. In addition, the Great Vowel shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as t was , greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation. The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules.