When Germany was reunited and the Cold War was at its end, Europe’s integration became one of the main goals of the actors of Europe, which has been achieved by creating the Single Market and the European Union. Then, Europe’s identity issues became one of its priority problems to solve. No politicians were willing to make Europe a federal state, because their focus was essentially economic, and thought that by working on an economic integration, cultural integration and unification would appear. However, these spill over effects never really became an existing reality. Although, the idea of this European identity was seen as the principle that would make the European project legit.
These policies are especially important for defining the museum role in the process of integration, if you consider them as an institution of the national importance. One of the project that emphasize that is European initiative “European Heritage Days”. This project is a joint initiative action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission which brings together all signatory states of European Cultural Convention. The merit of European Heritage Days lies in the fact that over the past 25 years they have made the public interested in understanding the pan-European picture of their cultural heritage. It is i project that is connecting cultures, religions and the people that make Europe, and uses heritage as a tool for better mutual understanding between people from all backgrounds as it bridges differences and contributes to the great social cohesion.
Role of social dialogue Introduction Evidence from various countries from the past three decades of European integration indicated that EU level social dialogue indeed plays an imperative role in the advancement of the social model of the Union. This is done through the delivery of benefits from the workers, workers as well as for the economy and the entire society as a whole . October 2011 marked the 2oth anniversary of the agreement between social partners which was later officially enshrined on the mashsrctictt treat. This lead to the establishment of procedures for governance of the labor and management on shaping as well s executing the EU employment as well as social policies . the European social dialogue entails the discussions
As the cultural diplomacy is to share values, the cultural policy should not be overemphasizing to specific region and it should able to cultivate the program of culture interchange with the cultural character of each region. For the region that shared similar culture, certainly it would be the advantages which make the process and the conduct of cultural diplomacy easier. Besides that, with the cultural policy, there will be reduction of the unnecessary bureaucratic process that might affect the culture because so far artists and cultural organizations are lack of capital and also constrained by to appropriate the working space and venue. In addition, the policy would allow informal cultural diplomats in this case artists and cultural organization to perform, present and produce the cultural interaction and contacts which more effective to conduct the cultural diplomacy. Cultural identity that promoted by cultural diplomacy is asset of soft power because projects the values, cultural and perspective which make the blend of cultural activities with traditional diplomatic easier by multiplying the opportunities for connections between people.
After World War II, European countries to strengthen the cooperation between each other, especially economic integration, and the pursuit of the ultimate political integration. To achieve these goals, six European countries in the early fifties signed the Treaty of Paris, creating the European Coal and Steel Community, followed in 1957, and signed two treaties of Rome, creating the European Economic Community and Euratom. These three are called the European Community Treaty. In the second article of the EC Treaty negotiated by the six countries, made clear: the establishment of the common market and the gradual convergence of economic policies of the Member States of the Community is to promote the harmonious development of economic life, sustained and steady economic expansion, rising living standards closer relationship with the member States. We can say that the primary objective of establishing the European Economic Community is to establish a common market.
1. Introduction The use of cultural activities, goods and services to enhance a city’s image, attract tourism, and promote economic development has be-come a prevailing trend not only in the renowned traditional cultural capitals of the world, but also in places not as well-known for their cultural backgrounds, such as Bilbao, Spain. Many cities have pur-sued the building of museums, cultural destinations, performing arts centers, galleries, and cultural districts, as part of wider urban devel-opment and revitalization strategies. The prevalence of cultural activ-ities in recent urban development programs makes it imperative for planners and policy makers to understand how they contribute to lo-cal economic development. On the other hand,
Introduction The European history beings in 1951 with the creation of coal and steel community. France, Italy, west Germany and the three Benelux countries agreed to join their coal and steel markets the main reason being the economic interdependence which make the return of war. These was from the words of the French foreign minister Robert schuman. During these period the gross domestic products of the six countries rosed deathly as the effects of the community rules on industrial production and trade began kicking. Six years later in 1957 the six countries signed the treaty of Rome creating the Europe Economic community.
Targeting whole of Europe initially itself is too ambitious and they have to handle all the tourists in Europe if they are to succeed. One of the biggest problems in targeting the entire European market is that there are so many countries in Europe with different and diversified languages and cultures. Disney was backing this move in Europe based on Tokyo’s success. Tokyo was a success since young generation over there had a huge influence of American culture on them and their demand for American entertainment was increasing. In Europe, people give more importance to their rich culture and values.
Later the concept of culture is presented in terms of foreign language teaching, and the popular issue of culture and how to integrate it into language teaching process is discussed in the light of the discussions raised by different researchers. Redefining it with an intercultural perspective has widened the concept of culture. From this perspective, teaching culture in foreign language classrooms is introduced with an intercultural approach. And in this approach intercultural competence is introduced and clarified by explaining its role and aims. Then, the chapter continues focusing on the implications of intercultural competence in language classrooms; specifically by discussing the role of course books in teaching intercultural competence.
The European Union has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union's official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries, sharing EU's democratic ideals and joining them in further integration without necessarily becoming full member states. Those relationships are made through the European Free Trade Area, the EU's European Neighbourhood Policy, the World Trade Organization. Also, the EU has a free trade agreement with a number of countries. The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was created to allow European countries to partake in a free trade area with less integration as within the European Communities (later the