Occlusion: Occlusion can be defined very simply:”it means the contact between teeth”. the concept can be further refined by defining those contacts between the teeth when the mandible is closed and stationary as the static occlusion, and those contacts between teeth when the mandible is moving relative to the maxilla as the dynamic occlusion.  • there are few terms in occlusion which needs to be explained in ordr to understand occlusion in detail. • Static Occlusion: static occlusion is the contact of upper and lower dentition when mandible is not moving. • Centric occlusion (CO): can be described as the occlusion the patient makes when they fit their teeth together in maximum intercuspation.
Voiced phonemes don’t engage the vocal chords. Voiceless phonemes are produced without the vocal cord and there is minimal vibration. (Rogers, Henry, p4) For instance, /b/ is produced when the vocal cords are vibrated, /p/ on the other hand is voiceless and is produced when the cords don’t vibrate. All vowels are voiced. 2.5 Suprasegmental, Suprasegmental, is a speech feature such as stress and tone that accompanies or is added over consonants and vowels.
Nasalization is considered as a case of assimilation, in which vowels acquire nasal qualities when preceded by a nasal consonant as in “ fan” [fæn]. Thus, sounds which are produced with the velum lowered (nasal port open) allows to the airflow to escape through the pharynx into the nose or vice versa, are ter ed “nasal or nasalized sounds”. In the production of nasal consonants, there is a complete closure in the mouth , as a result the air flows out through the nose (or the nasal cavities), while in the production of nasalized sounds, the mouth is not completely closed, consequently , the air stream goes out through both the mouth and the nose. Nasal and nasalized sound are characterized by the “nasal resonance”, acoustically when the nasal
They are individual members of a class of sounds or the pronounceable or concrete realizations of an abstraction (Briton 48). Allophones are non-distinctive variants of a phoneme since substituting one allophone for another allophone of the same phoneme will not lead to a different word (Briton 48). The different ways in which a phoneme is articulated are called allophones. They are predictable and influenced by the phonetic environment which governs the appearance of another allophone. Phonemes, on the other hand, are minimal distinctive linguistic sounds of a language that cannot be broken up into successive units: each phone in a string of phones corresponds to exactly one phoneme on the underlying level (Giegerich 32).
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Sound Change Kiparsky (2008) believed that sound change is viewed as exceptionless since The process of phonetically conditioned rooted in the mechanism of speech production. He also argued that there is the existence of exceptionless sound change, which grounded in natural articulatory processes. 2.2. Phonetic and Phonemic Aryapitipun (2003) stated that a phoneme is the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in a meaning of a language.
The sounds of English are not the same as the letters of English that is recognisable The patterning founded in the sound system of English is a reflection of physiology of the vocal tract. The English sound system make logic in footings of how sounds are made (and, mostly, for vowels, how sounds are supposed). The changing of air flow is the involve basic principle. When we make a sound, sound air moves through the vocal cords and passes out through the nose. As the sound moves, the air flow is changed through vibrating the vocal cords, by opening the velum to let go out through the nose, and by toning the air flow completely in the mouth.
The onset and coda are optional. -The most extreme phonotactic restrictions that can be seen are in the onset. -The phonotactic limits that are produced in the coda are often a prominent factor in the development of sequences of phonemes that have a major influence on the sound sequence. -Finally, you can find fewer restrictions in rhyme, which is formed by the combination of a nucleus and a coda. Activities: 1.Divide into syllables the parts of these
2.1.2. Accent and Phonetics Phonetics, the sub-area of linguistics that studies the sounds of speech, defines an accent as a specific pronunciation which is determined by the phonetic habits of the speaker 's native language carried over to his or her use of another language (O’Grady, Archibald, Aronoff, Rees-Miller, 2005). In terms of phonetics the accent is viewed as the speaker’s ability/ inability to pronounce the phonemes of a second language correctly. So the accent is what makes the speech of non-native speaker sound differently. In the process of acquiring the first language we learn how to accommodate our articulatory apparatus in order to produce the phonemes, interestingly, when speaking the native language we almost never think how the sounds are articulated.
This shows and proves the importance of teaching vocabulary in early stages. Well it is obvious that this range of vocabulary should be taught but how? There are many successful strategies like using denotative-connotative meanings, synonyms-antonyms, and activities, include student discussions, role plays, jeopardy games, flash cards, comic strips, acrostic poems, and a plethora of other writing assignments (Larson L. 2013). Another strategy that most teachers use is recommending learners not to use translation dictionaries but to use dictionaries that have explanations in target language (e.g. English-English dictionary).
• Performance Evaluation: The performance of the system must be evaluated using previously unseen data. 6. System Refinement: The capabilities of the system will be improved and refined as more training data are acquired. CHALLENGES AND ADVANTAGES Challenges of speech recognition and translator for under-studies languages there are two main issues. • The oral language spoken by the target speaker resulting in difficult in accurate estimation of statistical model for speech recognition and translator • Lack of language knowledge realization in spelling in standard dictionaries that will be a great challenge.