An auditor supplies the independence and objectivity to a financial report complementing the high expectations of third party users The professional judgement required is influenced by some professional traits such as the auditor’s experience and capability of the auditors training. In additional to the professional traits influencing the auditor’s judgement, the auditors is also influenced by behavioural and ethical traits. Auditors have a responsibly to ensure that ethical standards are upheld, ensuring the social exceptions of auditors
Accounting profession is related to sensitive information of each individual, their clients such as social security or bank account numbers. To be ethical in accounting can give a power to accountant to maintain trust between their clients which cannot be abused. Poor ethics in accounting results a lag in
Professional accountants are required to comply with the fundamental principles of APES 110 code and apply a “conceptual framework approach” to determine their compliance with the fundamental principles whenever they know that circumstance or relationships may compromise their compliance. While the onus is on the professional accountant to do this, the bulk of APES 110 code of ethics describes how the conceptual framework applies in specific situations, for example when receiving gifts or other inducements form a superior may threaten corporate accountants objectivity. Like the FIA code, the APES 110 provides guidance for the more common but certainly not all practice situations. in all the other instance, once a threat is identified, the APES 110 requires a professional accountant to evaluate the significance of the threat and if the treat is insignificant, no further evaluation is required, or if the threat is significant than consider whether safeguards could eliminate or sufficiently reduce the threat to an acceptable level. Despite the principles vs. rule argument, the APES code of ethics does contain de facto rules, in several instance the code states that the threat are so significant that no safeguards can be applied to reduce or eliminate treats to an acceptable level for example, an audit team member could not own
According to king III reports, ethics (integrity and responsibility) is the foundation of and reason for corporate governance. The ethics of govern once requires the board to ensure that the company is run ethically. As this achieved the company earns the necessary approval _ its license to operate from those affected and affecting its operations. (LoDSA, 2009: p21). Unethical behaviour inside the company is frequently caused by unethical individuals.
The fraud triangle is made up by three distinguished elements. These elements in the fraud triangle consist of pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. The overall representation of the fraud triangle can be seen as the specific model to spot any type of high-risk unethical and fraudulent performances being conducted by a company, in this case Cendant Corporation. Cedant Corporations actions can be analyzed by the fraud triangle by the way that their senior management/top management decisions fell into the three categories of pressure, rationalization, and opportunity. Cendant Corporation had the pressure to comply with their shareholders and to maintain a stable financial status to prove that they were a profitable organization with a bright company image.
Considering that accountants deal with the center of companies and organizations accountants owe a fiduciary responsibility to act professionally and in the best passions of their employers. Knowing the basics of professionalism in accounting is important part of accounting education. Ethical business techniques are an inseparable element of professionalism in accounting. Operating with money and financial reporting generates several chances for unethical behaviors, such as theft and fraud. Even though government organizations regularly work to identify and address areas of ethical concern in accounting, all accountants have an obligation to act ethically regardless of what doubtful behaviors the law may allow.
The primary cause of an IT infrastructure audit is to guarantee all IT resources available within a business or organization reach set goals and performance has been achieved while following the correct and the most appropriate processes. The specific objectives of undertaking an IT infrastructure audit may include: · Ensureing that the set infrastructure is compliant with the legal and regulatory requirements. · Ensuring that the IT infrastructure enforces the confidentiality of its corporate data. · Assessing whether the IT infrastructure in an organziation helps in attaining and maintaining data integrity. · Ensureing that the IT infrastructure guarantees availability and reliability of the available
Fiduciary duty: A fiduciary duty is a legal obligation to act in the best interest of a client or broader corporate entity. It sets the expectation that directors and officers place the interests of the firm over their personal interests. Business judgment rule: The business judgment rule lays out two requirements for directors and officers: that they uphold the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. In brief, they must conduct reasonable research before making corporate decisions, and must not prioritize private interests. Key fiduciary obligations of corporate directors: Corporate directors must pursue the best interests of the “corporate person,” serving as “trustees” of the stockholders.
Managers and auditors ensure that goals are achievable and useful to the company. Managers assess the corrective actions needed based on the findings of the audit team. They offer support and oversight to ensure the resolution of issues in a timely manner. The audit team cannot dictate decisions. It can only make recommendations based on its assessments of the change management