Tomlinson explains, India's export trade was composed of mainly agrarian produces like raw cotton, raw jute, rice, tea, oilseeds, and wheat, which were sold to North America, Europe, and Britain. However, increasingly simple manufactured goods had been exported. Great Britain was the most important trading partner, yet British exports to India remained significantly larger then imports from the colony. Britain accounted for 60% of all imports in 1913. The Indian market was not equally lucrative to all British exporters; to the staple industry, cotton textile manufacturers, and producers of engineering products, however, the Indian market was of immense importance.
Twenty two million overseas Indians constitute the second largest Diaspora of the world. Large scale Indian migration took place as a result of abolition of slavery in British, French and Dutch colonies in 1834, 1846 and 1873 respectively. Indentured labour was recruited for colonial plantations in Asia, Africa, Caribbean and Pacific. These workers were followed by Indian traders and professionals under the free passage system. The colonial connection also led to emergence of small Indian communities in UK, North America and Australia.
According to numbers of the UN there were around 154 million international migrants in the world in 1990 which has risen to an all-time high of 232 million international migrants in the year 2013. This proves that we as humans are constantly on the move. Nowadays it is argued if immigration has a positive influence on the economy in countries all over the world and that immigrants contribute something to the economy of a country. The question: should we consider immigration as a positive influence on the global economy, is raised. Immigrants and the global economy is a complex issue, there are many different opinions and the perspective of some people is just based on their anxiety.
Migration has been an integral part and a very important factor in redistributing population over time and space. India has witnessed the waves of migrants coming to the country from Central and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia. In fact, the history of India is a history of waves of migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts of the country. Similarly, large numbers of people from India too have been migrating to places in search of better opportunities specially to the countries of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America, Australia and East and South East Asia. Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location.
More than half the world's population lives in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2005, Asia held 53 million on 191 million migrants in the world according to the UN Department of Public Information of Economic and Social Affairs. In the 1970s and 1980s, international migration from Asia increased dramatically. The main destinations include the oil economy in North America, Australia and the Middle East. Since the 1990s, immigrants across Asia continue to grow, especially in the newly industrialized countries carry out large-scale labor surplus less rapid growth in developed countries.
Introduction Migration has become a common phenomenon in the present world. One of the important factor that contributes to the increased migration is globalisation. It is a universal occurrence that impacts the socio-economic conditions of a country in a fast pace. According to UNESCO, migration is the crossing of boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum amount of time. Migration also includes displacement of people, movement of refugees, uprooted people as well as economic migrants.
During the past decade, remittances have become an important source of income in many developing countries, especially in the Philippines. Migration across national borders has emerged as a global phenomenon. In 2013, 232 million people – 3.2 percent of the world 's population – lived outside their country of origin (UN-DESA, 2013). Most people move from their country to another in search of better economic and social opportunities. Other possible reasons to migrate are: standard of living not being high enough, low value of wages, not enough jobs that are available in a particular place or for a particular type of work, or a lack of educational opportunities.
Internal migration refers to the process of population redistribution within the national boundary of a country. Such movements often involve significant population shift even though the migrants do not cross any international boundary. Evidences indicate a continuous shift of population within a country as a response to a variety of social, economic and demographic factors in both developed and less developed parts of the world. Apart from specific migration waves in different countries, the processes of industrialization and urbanization have provoked significant shift of people from rural to urban areas. In the less developed parts of the world, another factor that has contributed to this rural-urban migration is the gap in the levels of
Migration itself refers to the movement and relocation of people. However, this review will specifically focus on other researches on external migration which is recognized as global migration referring to the movement and settling of people in another country than their origin (Hanlon & Vicino, 2014) . Its aspects and issues are covered by numerous researchers, concerning the present day period, and a bit of reflection on its history. The term ‘global migration’ is acknowledged to involve the relocating of nationals of one nation to another, increasing the effects onto families, social economic growth and development (Jackson, 2010). Thorough examinations of any historical era showcases a consistent tendency towards the geographic mobility among people, who are driven to relocate by diverse motives, but mostly with some idea of improvement (Massey, Arango, Hugo, Kouaouci, Pellegrino, & Taylor, 1999).
To gain their favor and influence many rulers of Indian and Southeast Asian kingdoms and cities converted to Islam. In this way countries like Indonesia became the largest Muslim populated country in world. Indian Ocean trade route not only effected the related regions economically it also changed its demography and ethnicity. To trade many people of many different culture migrated to different parts of the world. Indian ethnics settling in eastern Africa, Arab and European merchants moving into India’s Malabar Coast, Chinese merchants establishing in Southeast Asia gave birth to new ethnicity and languages.