Liberals argue that international institutions like the UN allow for a seemingly convenient platform for states to communicate directly with each other and on a global scale. Hence, cooperation will be fostered as common interests among states can be found such that the antagonistic nature of state relations prevalent in realism could be replaced with a more superficial one that is conducive to establishing world peace. Also, international institutions allow for collective security, where states do not respond unilaterally to an aggressor but “automatically join together to present the aggressor with the threat of overwhelming force”, and that victim states have the confidence that the international community will come to their aid. These arguments are supported by the fact that the UN consists of 193 member states, almost all the sovereign states in the world, all with representatives housed in a single General Assembly that would in theory allow for ease of communication and mutual understanding that would lead to greater cooperation. Also, regional groupings or more loosely based coalitions like the G77 have sprouted to enhance individual states’ negotiating position vis-à-vis the greater powers in the UN.
FINCA designed the evaluation methodology, which was connected to a planning tool that set operational and strategic goals. Basing on the assessments, a strengthening programme was created for each affiliate, responding to the most important weaknesses undermining their potential for sustainability and expansion. These institutional evaluations also had influence on access by affiliates to commercial funding, mainly because they were used to assess eligibility for credit-enhancement facilities, like loan guarantees, presented by FINCA’s Village Bank Capital
4.1 UN Peacekeeping Mandate UN peacekeeping operations are sent on the premise of mandates from the United Nations Security Council. The range tasks allocated to UN peacekeeping operations has extended fundamentally and significantly in response to shifting patterns of conflict and to best address threats to global peace and security. Depending on their command, peacekeeping operations might be required to: Prevent the outburst or overflow of conflict over borders. Balance struggle circumstances after a treaty, to make a domain for the gatherings to achieve an enduring peace agreement. Help in representing far reaching peace agreements and lead states or regions through a progress to stable government, in view of just standards, great administration
For today’s challenging environments, human capitals are playing an importance role in the organization in order to have dominant position in competitive advantage. Human capital developments are indispensable because it is unique and valuable assets for successful today. Undeniable, practices of human capital development is a significant process to employing and selecting the qualified employees to the organization. So, have a systematic functions and proper practices in strategic way not only can retain and attract the employees, it also can let the organization more understand the demand of employees. Development activities, empowerment, training and energetic participation to decision making process are the examples of human resources management (HRM) practices, all of these can assist employees’ to creative innovative ideas and let them active in innovation process.
For this purpose the UN can: “take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;” (Emphasis supplied) The Article gives authority to the United Nations, as an organisation, to take collective measures against any threat to peace. The responsibility to protect plays an important role to further this purpose of the UN. The entire Chapter VII of the UN Charter gives power to the UNSC to look into any kind of disruption that is caused and which affects or might affect international peace and security. Hence, the power of the UNSC extends till the question of international peace and security and not beyond it. The ICISS’ report suggesting the role of UNSC as an authority in promoting responsibility to protect finds its validity in this part of the Charter.
international relations play a significant role consciously or unconsciously with the following points; firstly, the pragmatic equality of countries, international relations serve as a tool in amalgamating different countries for a common interest (peace) not minding the previous history which might have occurred. In the laws of the people, John Rawls (1999) outlined what he claimed was a realistic utopia (ideal society). This took the form of a peaceful and cooperative order, in which moral ambition was limited to a number of specific goals, including the elimination of unjust war and oppression, the removal of religious persecution and restrictions on freedom of conscience, and an end to genocide and mass murder. Before the inception of IR, countries go into war in dispute as little as religious difference which gave reason in the mass slaughter and other war related vices of a world order. A close example of this war is the Westphalia war in which there was a recorded death of 8million people; The war began in 1618 when the Catholic Hapsburgs tried to crush the Protestants in Bohemia (now part of the Czech Republic).
The peace conference developed international labour standards at the International Labour Organization this was a unique legislative process which involved representatives of governments, workers and employers from around the world. The Internationals Labour Organization 's principal function was to establish international labour and social standards through the drafting and adoption of international labour conventions. All of the following international organizations have somewhat played an integral role or have had a level of importance in the development of International Laws. They have help in constructing order and mitigating destructive conflicts among states. International organizations serve many diverse functions in the development of international laws such as providing forums for bargaining such as the European Union and the settling of disputes The World Trade organization.
WTO WTO is an acronym for World Trade Organization . There are number of tasks performed by the world trade organization . It administers trade openings , provides forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements and settle disputes among them . It operates a system of trade rules . Main purpose of World Trade Organization is to provide forum for member governments to sought solutions for the problems they face in trading with each other .
Introduction International humanitarian law is a branch of law of nations or international law which is known as law of armed conflict or law of war. International Humanitarian Law seeks to mitigate the effects of war, limits the use of means and methods of war and obliges the belligerence to spare person who do not or no longer participate in hostile action (Hans-peter Gasser, ICRC: 2001). But the recent scenario of International humanitarian law and nature of recent conflicts, to the multiplication of non-state actors are taking a direct part in armed conflict, and also to new means or methods of warfare like cyber war, drone attack, nuclear weapons. Especially after the commencement of unlawful armed interventions in Afghanistan in 2001
WTO obligation and the trading system offered some benefits in regard to the globalization. The first advantage of WTO agreements is the obligation of WTO helps to keep the peace between the WTO members. In WTO, there is obligation on special provision that give developing countries special rights which called “special and differential treatment” provisions. So, the system contributes to international peace between developing countries and developed countries. This is because peace is the outcome of the principle of trading system.