2.3 Mediated Experiences in Social Interaction Mediated experiences in the case of social interaction differ from the other. It is because the experiences are highly related with the social interaction which had been mediated. The scope of the mediated experiences is wide where it comprises more range of information. According to Thompson, mediated experience is defined as the kind of experience that is acquired through mediated interaction or quasi-interaction. He has separated the mediated experience into four aspects where in the first aspect, it had been said that to experience events through the media is to experience events which are distant spatially from the practical context of daily life.
It was more complex than Shannon and Weaver’s but it still took their linear process as its skeleton. The main advantages over their model are: it related the message to the ‘reality’ that it is ‘about’ and enables us to approach the questions of perception and meaning, and it sees the communication process as consisting of two alternating dimensions – the perceptual or receptive, and the communicating and control dimension. This dimension also contains the concept of access to the media and channels of communication. (Fiske, John 2010) Lasswell’s model (1948) model is specifically one of mass communication. Lasswell argues that to understand the process of mass communication we need to study each stage in his model: Who, says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect.
The ‘Hypodermic Needle Model’ (also known as ‘Magic Bullet Theory’) is proposed in early stage of media studies which radio and television were the two major sources for people to receive information. It is a linear communication theory suggesting that the norms and values from media would direct inject into audience’s mind (O’Sullivan, Hartley, Saunders, Montgomery and Fiske, 1994: 137). It assumes that the viewer would receive the message passively as they have no chance to resist the injection of messages due to the limited method of receiving information. Since the mass media were seen as a powerful impact on behaviour change, this model
According to the Foucault’s (1980) notion of the history of the present, formulation of new ideas constantly challenges existing ones in the dynamic process of linking knowledge and change. Hall (1997) sees representation as a way in which portrayal of present events can lead to coding a set of values, attitudes and social climate. May (2003) theory of research as a “reflexive endeavour” enables this research to make a thorough examination of the selected texts, to discover the level of media and public knowledge on social work in a given period of time. Qualitative interviewing of the focus groups helps detecting individual understandings and interpretations of the same text. This is a substantial part of the theoretical framework, as it focuses on Hall (1997) definition of representation and creation of meaning, which Hall defines as “the process by which members of a culture use language (signs and signifying system) to produce a meaning
To constructivist, ideas are important, particularly when it takes structural form where in which this structure can influence the behavior of both state and non-state actors. Constructivist had re-imagined the social as a constitutive domain, reintroducing history as realm of empirical inquiry and emphasized the variability of political practice. It has also taken the idea that states are more than just a system, it is a society that has pushed this idea to a new level of theoretical and conceptual sophistication. In its journey in becoming one of the international
Like political culture and the public political efficacy, perception/ public opinion can be influenced by the individual efficacy and the media effects, Lindsay Hoffman observes that, despite the media flow in content, media have a chance in setting public agenda and orientation beyond individual characteristics; individuals might interpret information differently to create contextual data. Other theorists argue about the role played by bureaucrats in influencing public perception, they ascertain that politicians and bureaucrats play an important role in manufacturing public opinion through a series of activities ranging from channeling televised programs, visits, and engaging in activities to mold certain orientation. 2.3.1 Spiral of Silence Theory The theory of Spiral of Silence was founded by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann to entail the process of public opinion formation whereby an individual will refrain from expressing opinion whenever he/ she faces uncertainty over his viewpoints. The lack of self certainty is said to be influenced by social environment; Social environment is more influenced by media, and individuals who
This situation is under “Symbolic Interaction Theory”. Besides, from this theory, we also know about “Looking-glass self”, this means the ability how we imagine others look at us and the feelings that result. In addition , the web of social relationships that human create. In conclusion for this “Symbolic
The times of mass society as well as mass media have faded away. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the historical conditions in which the new media proliferates. In other words, unless the processes and patterns through which the new media socialization takes place, it is not possible to understand them as a whole. “Linear narratives and genres that were associated with particular media technologies and forms in the past- the novel, the Hollywood film, the LP record album, the crime drama- are absorbed into hyperlinked, hybrid content that is generated and shared via diverse channels” (Lievrouw and Livingstone, 2006). In his seminal work “Cultural Imperialism: A critical Introduction”, John Tomlinson (1992) defines cultural imperialism as “the use of political and economic power to exalt and
Introduction Post-colonialism is a newly developing theory in the study of international relations which is concerned with the historical aspects surrounding a community as well as the attempting to make light of individuals, groups or other aspects that are often tomes over looked or not seen. In this essay, I will determine the relevance of the post-colonial theory for the study of international law. This will be done by considering what is post-colonialism, what is international relations and what is the relationship between post-colonialism and international relations like. I will also consider the historical development theories such as subaltern and orientalism which have played a key role in the development of the post-colonial theory.
The Importance of Media Studies and How to Do It In this era of globalisation and technological advancement, one may find themselves swimming –indeed, perhaps even drowning—in media and its products. An individual is confronted with varying media in their daily life, from billboards advertising the latest blockbuster to newspaper articles criticizing a politician. It is essential for one to study media, for the understanding and shaping of one’s self and personality, as well as one’s surroundings and society. There are two key philosophical approaches in the study of media: the American approach, and the European approach, with no hard and fast methodology in both principles (McKee, 2016). Media studies plays an important role in teaching one to understand and shape one’s surroundings.