When looking at recent sociolinguistic discourse analytic research, we look at Keri and Kelsi Matwick’s work. They use the example of media discourse and how the language has been applied to recent sociolinguistics; television cooking shows provide a platform for discussion about food and stories are showed as a way to interpret expectances. Linguistic and structural components are used in explaining a recipe for example. The language that is used in marketing has made its way into informative language that is an intimate exchange of dialogue between the presenter of the cooking show and the viewer (Matwick & Matwick, 2013, p. 152). Another example of recent sociolinguistic discourse would be how politicians present their speeches.
These are all metaphors as a word or phrase is applied to something figuratively: unless he is a sheep, or we are putting our feet in ice water. But the chances are that these are metaphors that help represent abstract concepts through colorful language. Metaphors are not only the beauty of literature, poetry, music and writing, but also of speech. When it is said “metaphorically speaking,” it probably means that it’s not true in literal meaning, but as more of an idea. For example, “you are my life” and “she is a rising star,” are figurative or metaphoric expressions.
In Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff and Johnson (2003) discussed the essence, structure, mechanism and function of metaphor. George Lakoff and Johnson defined “metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.”(Lakoff and Johnson,
The implication of Modality Halliday (2004:72), Lyon (1977) and Ye (2010) pin out that modality also shows a fundamental role and gives certain meanings and nuances in speech through utilizing the interpersonal metafunction of clauses relating to what degree the proposition seems valid. He adds that modality can also indicate the space between “yes” and “no”, relating to the speaker’s assessment of the probability or obligations of what he she is saying. Scholars like Fairclough (1992), Lyons (1977) and Thompson (2000:57) state that modality consists of two terms Modalisation and Modulation, i.e., ‘epistemic’ and ‘deontic’. Ye (2010) argues that the former term "modalisation" relates to the speaker’s judgment of the validity of the proposition,
Morphological variations are seen in dialects of one language. In English, one 's dialect 3. Discuss the relationship between poverty and the early vocabulary-achievement gap as evident in research on lower-income
IDEOLOGY PROMOTION VIA POLITICAL MYTHS A Cognitive Critical Study of Political Discourse in the UK and the Republic of Croatia Words – so innocent and powerless as they are, as standing in a dictionary, how potent for good and evil they become in the hands of one who knows how to combine them. Nathaniel Hawthorne, writer (1804-1864) 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Defining fundamental terms There is no type of discourse in which the connection between language and power and the creation of social inequality is as obvious as in political discourse. In fact, politics affect people’s cognition by constructing and changing the image of the world around them (social reality).
2.2 Grammatical metaphor Grammatical metaphor is one of the most interesting theoretical notions developed by Halliday (1985/1994) within Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG). Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical
To avoid this narrow cognition of meaning, many fields of studies explore the concept of multimodality and its modes from various perspectives. Thus, there are different approaches that engage in the research of the multimodality defined as “understanding of human meaning making” (ed. Litosseliti, 2010, p. 194). Farther, Rick Iedema (2003) observes that multimodality “provides the means to describe a practice or representation in all its semiotic complexity and richness” (p. 39). Multimodality, at this point, is multidimensional and its modes might be understood differently depending on various planes, like context or situation.
Metaphors were used to refer to immigrants (Anna, 1999),and to indicate social change in society (Amouzadeh and Tavangar, 2004). Metaphors were also used in various fields such as in American presidential speeches, press reporting, financial reporting and religious discourse (Charteris – Black, 2004). In the field of education, metaphors dealing with teaching, learning and language were investigated (Cortazzi and Jin,1999; Littlemore and Koester, 2008). In relation to the other kinds of figurative language, such as irony and hyperbole, metaphor becomes problems in language teaching compared with the other kinds of figurative language (Littlemore and Low, 2006). If metaphor becomes one of the everyday aspects of communication, language learners should be able to comprehend and to produce it.