Differences in men’s and women’s speech People will consciously and unconsciously perform each identity. Language is a form of performance. The conventions of linguistic behaviour of men and women are strained from the performance of the felt and desired gender identity of a person. The above-mentioned conventions are based on natural discourse of the genders as well as on the ideologies of gendered speech behaviour within a society. Feminist movements realized that language was one of the instruments of female oppression by males.
Westernization and modernization happened rapidly and Japanese wanted to hold on to their culture and identity, because of this nihonjinron was created and also speaking in gendered language become more important as it meant being unique from western culture. The use of gender language in japan has placed men and women in a certain way by controlling, dominating, or patronizing each other by the use of the language. According to Murasaki Shikibu, during time periods men thought of women differently. For instance, during the Heian period “Women should maintain feminine speech and not interfere with men’s affairs.” Then during the Genroku period “Women using male speech are disgusting and should learn to speak tenderly”. During the Edo Period (Mid-Edo period) “women-servants of samurai families used court-ladies” language (Latter half of Edo period) “Court ladies language became standard female language” lastly, Meiji period, Westernization and modernization.
Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process. Tannen used her genderlect theory to help bridge that gap by acknowledging and achieving an understanding of the language of each gender. Conversation between men and women can be described like cross-cultural communication. This is the basis of Tannen’s You Just Don’t Understand. In an effort to bridge that communication gap between genders, she examined the differences between how and why people communicate.
Even though gender, race, and class in media are rather new subjects for studying, there utilization and appealing to them are widely used in the various media and Far Away Places is not an exception. At the same time, the analysis should be deep and multiple for defining real topics and messages of the piece of media (Dines et al, p. 12). The episode might be defined as one that depicts interpersonal communication problems. Don and Megan Draper lack the understanding in their couple because of the general domination of the husband over his wife. However, this situation depicts also misunderstanding between genders because on the bases of the social inequality of individuals according to their sexes.
Unequal treatment towards opposite gender: The society who believes in gender decontamination do not treat men and women equally, it draws a boundary around women while men are free to do any thing they want to do and there are no boundaries for men. Woman are restricted to follow a particular pattern which is designed for them by society i.e men. There are feminists working in favor of woman and fighting for their rights. Misogyny: Misogyny is the hatred or dislike of women or girls. Misogyny can be manifested in numerous ways, including sexual discrimination, belittling of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification of women.
2.2 Theoretical Framework 2.2.1 Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity Brannon (2004), defines gender stereotype as beliefs about the psychological traits and characteristics of, as well as the activities appropriate to, men or women. Gender roles are interpreted by behaviours, but gender stereotypes are about the beliefs, views and attitudes towards masculinity and femininity. Therefore, gender stereotypes are very influential; they impact conceptualizations of women and men and establish social categories for each gender. These categories represent what people think, and even when beliefs vary from reality, the beliefs can be very powerful forces in judgments of self and others. He further classifies gender stereotype in two categories
Labov (1990) refers to this phenomenon as Principle 1. While in stable sociolinguistic stratification men tend to use covert prestige and a higher frequency of non-standard forms, such as slang and incorrect grammar. Many explanations have been proposed as to why men and women tend to speak in this way. One theory suggests that because men’s occupation supposedly demonstrates their masculine status in society women have to rely on appearances and self-presentation because they have “less access to real power.”( Lodge,1997). According to Romaine (1978) “The females are clearly more concerned with the pressure exerted by local norms and asserting their status with the social structure”.
They therefore have more power, and harassment is a reflection of that power difference. The sociocultural argument claims that harassment is due more to cultural gender norms than to societal structure, with men being socialized to be aggressive and dominant and women being socialized to be more fearful and submissive. According to the social control theory, men view the public domain as their territory, and they harass to maintain their power as the dominant group and keep women out of the public domain. Additionally, it seems that women have somehow come to be viewed as “open persons.” Erving Goff man (see Bowman, 1993; Gardner, 1995) described “civil inattention” as the way briefly meeting each other’s
Laws are not enough for men & women equality, so we should focus on culture of people. General public must change people 's perception about women. Unfortunately most of the men still can’t get rid of their idea about women which create discrimination. Naturally men and women have different from each others, but it does not mean that discrimination is necessary in this point. Categorizing people is just infest to society.
In general, time frames often distinguish the attitudes between men and women, resulting in a lack of ethical paradigms of justice. Women quite often lived under their husband's rule, constantly being hindered. In many cases, females were not considered significant in societal matters. Furthermore, there was a lack of caring towards them, and women were more so looked upon as jaded and less consequential. A masculinist might ponder the thoughts that females deserve neglectful behaviour, lacking the comprehension of equality.