Intersectionality is a framework designed to acknowledge and investigate the dynamic between various identities and their connected systems of oppression. As someone who struggles to understand the purpose of labels, as they give name to their co-existing stigma and predispositions, it intrigued me when I first began the paper, writing: “As a white male…”. In a society where identities are necessary to express oneself, everyone is susceptible to the oppression and benefits of these systems, and the goal of this paper is to simply explore how I, Nolan Cobb, was, and am affected by the stigma attached to the various labels of which I choose to identify. It is, however, noteworthy to mention that I will be greatly condensing my experiences throughout
Intersectionality is a theory which illustrates various types of discrimination an individual face when their identities imbricate with a number of minority classes such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, and other characteristics. Intersectionality is defined as looking at the intersections of people's identities. It examines how women of different background experience oppression. The phrase intersectionality was first developed by Kimberle Crenshaw to explain the methods in which social identities overlap and how that influences into experiences of oppression. Crenshaw began using the term to understand how African American women encounter both racism and sexism in multifaceted ways.
Intersectionality: The Future of Theoretical Bridges and Application The reproduction of inequality through the division of labor varies based on historical context, and the same process of exploitation occurs among other groups based upon and grouped by individual traits related to religion, race, ethnicity, and health/disability status. Like the working labor force, these individuals are part of the very same capitalist structure that purposely imposes certain restraints to reinforce conditions to ensure inequality exists based on social categories. Present examples include people with disabilities who despite legislation refused access to specific spaces, as are particular ethnic groups; limited access decreases employment (income), socialization,
Psychology is the study the human mind, including behaviors and disorders. However for much of history, the “human” in this definition has actually meant male. From the birth of psychology as a field, most of the research has been conducted by, for, and about men. The perspectives of women are historically severely lacking. In fairly recent times, women have gained the right to become psychologists, go to college, and participate in the research progress.
How can the concept of White Privilege be expanded to include gender privilege, class privilege, or heterosexual privilege? According to Monahon (2014), p. 73, stated, “In the broadest terms, the concept of privilege is meant to capture the unearned benefits and advantages that accrue to members of dominant groups as a result of the ongoing exploitation and of members oppression of members of dominated groups”. One way white privilege can expand to class by a wealthy son of a business owner.
Third, cognitive-motivational factors where children “begin to filter the world through a gendered lens” (Leaper, Friedman 562), interpreting gender related behavior, and forming gender typed expectations. Alexie wrote this specific novel from a male perspective. Which isn’t always a bad thing, but there is a way to write a book from a male lense, while “deconstruct[ing] gendered practices and gendered hierarchies” (Bean, Harper 15), which isn’t the case here. Alexie included a “male gaze” that was all too apparent. Junior apparently is already filtering the world through a gendered lens.
Feminism and gender studies have been a prominent field of study since their introduction to society well over 200 years ago. One of the most prominent theories of feminism emerged during this time and remains a significant field of research since it was implemented: intersectionality. Intersectionality as a feminist theory and application takes into consideration the multiple layers of a person that come together to form a person’s whole identity (K. Davis, 2009; Mann, 2013). Historically, the focus has been on race, gender, class, and age (Winch, 2014; Farrell, 2013).
Midterm Intersectionality: As a human being you are not bound nor placed into one single group or category. You yourself do not identify solely by gender or race. There are multiple aspects to you that make you who you are; it consists on how you see yourself and how the world perceives you. Intersectionality is the interwoven identities that make up who you are: race, class, gender, religion, sexual orientation, nationality, etc. They are interdependent and can be shaped by one’s own personal experiences.
The first order of business would be firstly to define ‘Intersectionality’ in order to gain a better understanding and grasp of the concept. ‘Intersectionality’ is a term that was first developed during the second wave of academic feminism during the 1970’s where women’s’ experience was at the forefront of Feminist thought according to Shields (2008). In 1989 Kimberle Crenshaw, an American Legal Scholar, did a study on ‘intersectionality’ in which she refers to an interaction between the different aspects of our ‘identities’ such as ‘gender’, ‘race’ and ‘class’. ‘Intersectionality’ as a concept aims to understand social inequality and systematic injustice by observing the ‘multiple categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements, and cultural ideologies and the outcomes of these interactions in terms of power’ (Davis.2008). ‘Intersectionality’ has two major focal points which are identity and difference, and inequality and oppression.
In 1990, feminist and sociologist Patricia Hill Collins developed her theory of intersectionality. Intersection theory proposes that the effects of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation, among other characteristics, can not be separated in order to be fully understood (OpenStax College 239). African-American women especially have had difficulty in addressing the social problems they faced, having been left disenfranchised or outright excluded from both a patriarchal civil rights movement and overlooked by mainstream feminist movements. While the black feminist movement, and later womanism, gained traction in the second half of the twentieth century and continues to this day, issues related to intersectionality have been a key issue for