To Parrillo, a person is not only influenced to have a discriminatory mentality psychologically wise but also socially wise. He presents us with two forms (Socialization and Social Norms) of how an individual is persuaded to incline towards having discriminatory thoughts due to his surroundings. According to Parrillo in “Causes of Prejudice”, socialization is where a person adopts the perspectives and moralities from those who surround her. These perspectives and moralities implement the thought of race as an opportunity to outcast those who do not possess the same benefits as the “inferior” individuals. The term social norms is in a way similar to the term socialization, it just refers to a more personal level of influence.
How does race define us? Since the end of segregation racial integration has dominated our social world. Our race has been a hot button topic. The examination of an individual on the basis of their character, culture and actions is often preceded by baseless judgement. The topic demonstrates the social flaws that we share as a society; an argument for or against the judgment of an individual on the basis or race.
In Appiah's essay "Racial Identities" the author illustrates the point that just because an individual's extrinsic appearance looks as though he or she should belong to a certain group of people it is ultimately up to them to choice their identity. His principal and abiding concern is how we as individuals construct ourselves in a language with the social condition in a persons everyday life. Appiah analyzes the convolution of this process of individuals forming into one identity, emphasizing the opportunities as well as the dangers for self-creation in today’s a culturally mixed world. Appiah’s critique of these large collective identities (whites, Africans, African Americans, and Hispanics) aren't designed to deny their legitimacy but to
Sociological Perspectives Sexuality has three assumptions to it 1. Sexuality of members 2. Institutions of society such as family, religion, 3. What is appropriateness or inappropriateness of sexual behavior with in the cultural it occurs in. Society and culture shapes human sexuality that is what is interesting to sociologists.
Intersectionality is described by Davis as “the interaction between gender, race, and other categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements and cultural ideologies and the outcomes of these interactions in terms of power”(p. 456, Davis). In relation to inequality and intersectionality, Browne and Misra discuss the anti-categorical approach which explains how by placing people in categories of race, class, and gender, we are only perpetuating inequality by continuing to acknowledge our differences. These categories are inherently intersectional, with race being gendered and “classed”, and gender being “raced” and classed”. (p. 468, Browne, Misra) In conclusion, race, gender, and intersectionality play a major role in understanding inequality. Intersectionality is about focusing on all the aspects of an individual or group's identity and how society treats them.
Each individual has their own different social identity. One’s social identity is constructed based on the different influences around them. The development of social identity is influenced by various factors such as the historical, cultural and religious beliefs of the society, community or family where one is brought up. It is influenced by the behaviours and attitudes of authority figures such as parents, teachers and community leaders around them, it is also influenced by external factors such as the media, one’s peers and the overall exposure one has (Carrim, 2006, p56). This essay is an effort to discuss why matters or race and racism are more than just the attitudes and behaviours of individuals.
Many of the authors discuss the issue of racial identity amongst Latinos, and its connection to critical race theory. Critical race theory is defined as the study of race relations within a society and how it is a part of the foundation in “historical and contemporary social structures and experiences”. A person’s environment or society can influence how a person may perceive their racial identity and how it is presented to others. In a trend study conducted by Taylor et. al (2012), a few major points were touched upon.
Barbara Perry, hate crime scholar, argues that hate motivated violence is a social control mechanism rooted in institutional power structures. Perry explained hate crime as an outgrowth of systems of oppression as it is a way to maintain social hierarchies. For instance anti-LGBT violence reinforces the the cultural devaluation of homosexualidty (Perry,
Gender Inequality Gender inequality is a characteristic of social structure according to which different social groups (in this case men and women) have certain differences resulting in unequal opportunities. Gender inequality is associated with social construction of masculinity and femininity as oppositional categories with unequal social value (Ferree, 1999). One of the main problems in gender theory is the problem of dominance. Together with race and class gender is a hierarchical structure that could to provide both opportunities and oppression (Ferree, 1999). Gender inequality can exist in different forms, depending on culture, region, religion and other factors.
Patricia Collins tries to expose her readers to the term oppression and the different types of oppression that human beings can be subjected to or rather the different disparities that cause human oppression including gender and race among others. Collins (74) in her attempt to expound on the issue of oppression and dichotomous thinking argues that "one side of the dichotomy is typically labeled dominant and the other subordinate" which forms the basis of the definition of the term as being a way of thinking in which an individual is convinced that they are subject to being the dominant or the subordinate on the basis of different issues including race where the white male perceives himself as the dominant while the black male becomes the subordinate.The
In explaining the accounts for the racial differences, the paper will utilize the group-position model of race relations. The model is an element of conflict theory that views racial personality not just as a consequence of negative perception between different racial groups but as a reflection of the competition and conflict between the same groups over power and status. The model roots its argument in a collective group position with the group interest being the driving force that underlie the relation between the groups. Most of the group interest are attached to the beliefs of the members that they have claims to the scarce resources. The attitude of the dominant group towards other racial groups are positional: a term that defines the shape of the sense of the supremacy of the groups over other minority groups.
There are a variety of cultural differences depicted throughout the world. Beliefs systems and social groups in our society today are based on a person’s background history, upbringing, and consciousness. One major aspect of a social group is the study of double consciousness or the internal conflict. The presence of two unconnected streams of consciousness in one individual or experienced by subordinated groups in an oppressive society in comparison to one’s own individuality or the quality that makes one person or thing different from all others. How a person feels about themselves and the intrapersonal relationship that occurs within the individual mind or self has a great impact on a person’s life.
1212 &1213). Similarly, oppression and inequality must first be addressed at an institutional level. Intersectionality is equipped to do just that, as through acknowledging the intersectional “interplay” of gender, sexuality, class, and race, oppression and inequality are reinforced, created and upheld (Mattsson, 2014, p.8). As Mattsson (2014) describes, by understating the complexities of intersexuality in power relations, we can challenge the social structures that create oppression in the first place. It is only through these realizations that the correlations between oppression, institutions, inequalities, power, and suffrage can be recognized and understood, for instance, the disproportionate HIV infection rates among the black female population, as well as the disproportionate domestic and sexual assault indigenous women encounter (Amnesty International, 2009; Logie et al.,