The following report is on an article from American Journal of Philology (ISSN 0002-9475, 2013, Volume 134, Issue 1, pp. 67 – 82) by Tara Welch from University of Kansas: Was Valerius Maximus a Hack? Abstract: Valerius Maximus’ “Facta et dicta memorabilia” blends elements of Roman declamation and historiography. Scrutiny of this text’s intertextual practices sheds light on the relationship it creates between its contents and its readers. Whereas declamation’s textual re-use aims to draw attention to the declaimer’s skill at adapting material, and historiographers invoke prior texts to borrow the earlier author’s authority, Valerius Maximus includes prior texts in ways that obscure both his own skill and his source’s authority.
Foucault says that, once we assume the idea of "author" as an individual creator, what do we think by "work". Foucault realized writing as interplay of signs arranged less according to its signified content than according to very nature of the signifier. As Foucault wrote: “that today’s writing has freed itself from the theme of expression”. He said that a writer's individuality is removed by writing, and with this idea he turned the literature into discourse because we see "author," as the function of language and become a part of the structure of texts. As he claimed: “Perhaps it is time to study discourses not only in terms of their expressive value or formal transformations but according to their modes of existence.
Current literary criticism is affected by and reveals the beliefs of our times in the same way that literature reflects and is reflected by its own historical contexts. Mikics(2007) notes that Foucault’s idea that structures of thought shape everyone and everything within a culture did influence New historicism as a literary
In many ways, postmodernism is perceived as a direct contrast to modernism and postmodern artists embody a large sense of rebellion seen explicitly in their works. (Postmodern Powerpoint) In terms of literature, writers during the postmodernism period used a lot of play and irony as the main themes and juxtaposed fiction with non-fiction. (Postmodernism Powerpoint) For example, in Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five, the reader finds that the main
1. Introduction At times, people would borrow words and ideas from other works to fit specific situations and purposes. Whether conscious or not, they are using intertextuality. Originally coined and developed by the poststructuralist Julia Kristeva (1986) in 1966, the term intertextuality has been widely accepted and used in the field of modern and postmodern literary criticism. In their Introduction to Text Linguistics, De Beaugrande and Dressler (2002) state that intertextuality “concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts”.
fabula and sjuzet are explained by modern literary theorists as the timeless and the sequenced aspects of the story. Sjuzet weaves this timeless fabula and creates a linguistic tapestry of lived experiences that are expressed through forma. Integration of theme, discourse and genre in relation to Hinchman’s definition, sjuzet organizes events in a sequential manner which is of a prime importance. This organizing process facilitates to understand significance of each event through its relation to the other. Reading it in the context of self-narratives, past - the lived experiences, present - the process of narration and an imagined future co-exist in the ‘now’ of narrative performance.
That is to say, new historicism refuses to ‘privilege’ the literary text, instead of a literary ‘foreground’ and a historical ‘background’ it envisages and practices a mode of study in which literary and non-literary works are given equal weight and constantly inform or interrogate each other. This ‘equal weighting’ is proposed in the definition of new historicism offered by the American critics Louis Montrose who defines it as a combined interest in ‘the textuality of history, the historicity of texts’. It involves ‘an intensified willingness to read all the textual traces of the past with the attention traditionally conferred only on literary texts’. Many Indian English writers have turned to the past as much to trace the deepening attitude of nationalism so as to cherish the memories of the bygone days. Ghosh’s concept of history colours all his writing.
ABSTRACT This article focuses how Amitav Ghosh uses history against fiction and how he represents reality against fiction. In the nineteenth century, literature and history were considered branches of the same tree of learning, a tree which sought to interpret experience for the purpose of guiding and elevating man. Then came the separation that resulted in the distinct disciplines of literary and historical studies today, despite the fact that the realist novel shared many similar beliefs about the possibility of writing factually about observable reality. Fiction about history is called historiographic metafiction. This article eplains how Amitav Ghosh uses history with in fiction in the novel The Hungry Tide.
Moreover, Caruth examines the relationship between trauma in relation to time and space and its literary representation. For her, literature becomes the unforgettable place of trauma. Literature represents the unrepresentable, and thus trauma narratives demand what Caruth calls a “new mode of reading and of listening”
With adaptations of classic texts from earlier periods, therefore, it is not only a question of filling the visual ‘gaps’ that appear to be suggested by the adapter’s interpretation of the original. There is often the temptation to portray a scene from a late 20th century perspective in order, ironically to sustain the adapter’s sense of what is authentic to the text. Such decisions are often made based on being faithful to what the author would have expressed. One example of this kind of justification for certain production choices may lie in Laurence Olivier’s claim that Shakespeare ‘’in a way wrote for the films’’ (preface to Olivier 1984). Recent examples of the adapter’s decision to ‘add’ something in terms of tone are in the BBC’s recent version of Pride and Prejudice: The character of Darcy is overtly sexualized, a clear object of the female gaze, culminating in the famous scene where Darcy strips to the waist to swim the lake at Pemberley.