Intertextualization In Literature

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Beside the previously mentioned theories, the four Arab women novelists employ various literary techniques that this study will depict to fulfill their objective of portraying Arab women in war trauma. For example, fragmentation of time is a technique that conveys the idea of vicious time circle. The time shift from the present to the past and vice versa emphasizes the sense of no progress at the time of war trauma. All the events are an extension of the traumatic event. Fragmentation of time results in fragmentation of place as a representation of instability and estrangement. Another fragmentation is the multiple narrative voices technique which is called Focalization technique by Gerard Genette. The events are narrated by the first person…show more content…
First, in the depicted novels the reader will find three kinds of interextuality: Arabic famous writing to emphasize the Arab roots and the dream of peaceful Arab countries; exilic writing to refer to the idea of war and estrangement; and finally western voices to either be objective by displaying different points of view or to attack falsification. Second, metonymy refers to objects that stand for a certain idea. For example, Keys and family pictures in exile refer to home or the lost home, and olive and figs refer to Palestine or the lost country Palestinians dream of. National allegory is also considered as one of the most effective techniques to give the literary works their political nature. For example the characters of the patriotic Hassan in The Scar of David, the disappointed Abu Ghayeb in Absent and the heroines in the four novels are considered allegorical figures that say a lot about their countries. This paves the way to draw contrast and parallelism among characters and themes in the same and among the different novels…show more content…
Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History (1996) by Cathy Caruth is an essential reference in the trauma field. Cathy Caruth is one of the key figures in contemporary trauma theory. She has famously redefined it as “the event is not assimilated or experienced fully at the time, but only belatedly, in its repeated possession of the one who experiences it” (4). It re-surfaces in a fragmented form as traumatic flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and repetitive re-enactments. Trauma becomes part of the survivor’s identity, and is in Freud’s terms, "acted out" (Remembering, Repeating 36), as if it happens in real time. For Caruth, it is precisely this time-and-placelessness, the collapsing of the distances between past and present, here and another place that constitutes the force of trauma. To explain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) repeatedly returns as intrusive images and compulsive behavior. In other words, it is re-enacted rather than remembered or understood. Moreover, Caruth examines the relationship between trauma in relation to time and space and its literary representation. For her, literature becomes the unforgettable place of trauma. Literature represents the unrepresentable, and thus trauma narratives demand what Caruth calls a “new mode of reading and of listening”

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