Intervention In Child Development

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Taking a family-centered approach to intervention means including the family in all aspects of the intervention process: defining and explaining problems, goal setting, designing interventions and evaluating outcomes (Björck-Åkesson, Granlund & Olsson, 1996; Granlund, Wilder & Almqvist, 2013). This approach has been shown to lead to positive developmental outcomes for children with disabilities (Björk-Åkesson, Granlund & Olsson, 1996).
Interventions are often only focused on the child with disabilities (Bornman & Granlund, 2007), but can also be focused on families, groups or even society (Granlund, Wilder & Almqvist, 2013). Interventions in early-childhood are becoming more family-based. Therefore, changes in the
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These naturally occurring learning opportunities often happen without warning and combine to create the life experiences for a child (Dunst et al., 2001). However, for a child with a disability, these opportunities often occur less frequently and require more planning by caregivers (Bornman & Rose, 2010). One type of natural learning opportunity is found in the routines and rituals of families (Dunst et al., 2001). When these family routines and rituals are reliable children are provided with a sense of consistency and are able to predict how their behaviors will influence their environments, and this results in positive behavior outcomes (Dunst, Trivette, Raab & Masiello,…show more content…
“Goal setting is the identification of and agreement on a target between the client, therapist or team followed by working towards that target over a specific period of time” (Bornman & Murphy, 2006, p. 145). Parents usually know what is best for their children and are encouraged to use this expert knowledge to identify goals for their children and their family (Bernheimer & Weisner, 2007; Bornman & Rose, 2010). The more connected the goals are to the family routines, the more meaningful they will become and the more likely they are to be implemented. The goal setting and outcome evaluation aspects of the intervention process were created using the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) (Björk-Åkesson, Granlund & Olsson, 1996; McDougall & King, 2007). The Goal Attainment Scale includes six basic requirements for goal writing; they must be: relevant, understandable, measureable, behavioral, attainable and include a time frame (McDougall & King, 2007). To use the GAS for evaluation of the interventions a summary score will be calculated using aggregate T-scores (McDougall & King,
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