Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats continues in the small intestine. Starch and glycogen are broken down into maltose. Proteases (enzymes secreted from the pancreas) continue the breakdown of protein into small peptide fragments and some amino acids. Bile emulsifies fats, facilitating their breakdown into progressively smaller fat globules until they can be acted upon by lipases. Bile contains cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin, and a mix of salts.
In the stomach, milk proteins casein and whey mix with HCL and pepsinogen. HCL is secreted by parietal cells which line the walls of the stomach. Pepsinogen is secreted by gastric chief cells, becoming active when contacting HCL. HCL causes proteins to denature. Casein and whey are now accessible to pepsin (the active form of pepsinogen) to be broken down into peptides for easier digestion in the small intestine.
When the food is passed into the small intestines it is mixed with three liquid. It includes bile which is a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Pancreatic juice which is obviously made by the pancreas and intestinal juice. In addition, they’re also enzymes including maltose, sucrase to process the sugar. In the small intestine is where the food breaks down and passes through the walls containing finger like projection called the villi, so you can get the nutrition from it all.
The Digestive System The digestive system is a system consisting of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine, the rectum and the anus. The functions of the digestive system are: • To break down food particles into molecules for digestion • To absorb into the bloodstream the small molecules produced by digestion • To eliminate un digested and unabsorbed foodstuffs and other waste products from the body The full digestive process begins at the mouth. The food enters the mouth and is chewed. This is call mastication and it gives the food a greater surface area which enables enzymes to break the food down making it easier to digest. The process of breaking down the food starts with the saliva in your mouth.
The process of digestion starts in the mouth, then makes its way to the stomach and large intestine, and concludes in the small intestine. At each step along the way, specific enzymes break down specific types of food. This process is chemically balanced as each site along the digestive tract has a different degree of acidity that allows certain enzymes to function while restraining others. Each specific enzyme can bind to only one specific substrate, or group of allied chemical substances. After leaving the stomach, food pulp enters the upper portion of the small intestine where the pancreas (digestive organ that feeds enzymes into the gut) provides pancreatic enzymes to further break down the
Factors that contribute to dialysis are low blood pressure resulting in low blood flow to the kidneys. A reduced blood flow can cause damage to the epithelial lining of the tubules within the kidney and this hinders the filtration within the kidneys. Kidney failure will also cause a person to have to undergo dialysis. What are some dietary restrictions in dialysis? A patient must limit their fluid and sodium intake.
Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
This depends on the amount of carbohydrates that is in a certain protein or fatty food. UCSB Science Line contributes to this by saying, “Generally speaking, carbohydrates tend to spend the least amount of time in the stomach, while protein stays in the stomach longer, and fats the longest. The time it takes to metabolize carbohydrates depends on the type. Simple sugars are metabolized much faster than more complex carbohydrates.” The slower digestion provides the body with a longer, more sustained energy rather than a quick burst of
INTRODUCTION Peptic ulcers are also known as “ulcus pepticum”. An ulcer is defined as a non malignant mucosal lesion of the stomach. It occurs due to exposure of stomach and duodenum to pepsin and gastric acid. Peptic ulcer is due to imbalance occurs between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, H. pylori and defensive factors such as gastric mucus, nitric oxide and growth factors bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins, mucosal blood1. Local mechanisms implicated in mucosal defence are mucus-bicarbonate secretion, mucosal hydrophobicity, rapid epithelial cell restitution and rich mucosal blood flow2.