2. Literature Review 2.1 The Development of Attribution Theory The attribution theory is one of the newly developed learning motivation theories. From the literal meaning, the attribution theory can be understood as the processing of attributing the consequences of acts or events to some causes. Historically, the study of motivation is the result of the analysis of behavior from the causes of behavior. Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences.
This is what attribution theory is concerned about. Attribution is a process by which individual explain and predict the cause of other people’s actions and who or what was responsible for that behavior or outcome. Attributing behavior can be done in few processes. First, an individual must observe either his own behavior or of that of another individual. Second, an individual or someone must determine if the behavior or action being observed id intentional.
Motivation is understood as the activation of behaviour Herb (1955). There are two main theories of motivation in the field of Psychology. The two theories of motivation are the drive (internal) theories and incentive value (external) theories. There is a vast contradistinction between these two theories which serves to create an ideal topic of debate and unique tool of analysis to understand or find the possible causes pertaining to the case study of Amanda and her failure during her first semester at university. This essay will break down these two sets theories into description, strengths and weaknesses as well as link each analysis to Amanda's situation by attribution in order to reach a conclusion as to which theory may provide a better
Another theory of motivation is the arousal theory of the motivation, this theory talks about the people who are motivated to do things to moreover decrease or increase the levels of arousals. According to this theory, people are motivated to constantly maintain the best possible level of arousal even this can contrast bases on the human being or the circumstances. Lastly is the humanistic theory motivation in particular illustrated by Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of need. It is all about on the idea that an individual also have a strong cognitive
The value of teaching and learning is associated with the experience of an improvement in understanding or knowing. In this study, personal development was strongly associated with the evolution of one’s ways of thinking, seeing and doing things. In turn, such evolution was described as becoming intellectual and knowledgeable. Further discussion revealed that development embraced improvement in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and becoming empowered as the self-manager of one’s development and that these explained quality in teaching and learning (Harvey & Green, 1993; Harvey & Knight, 1996). Importantly, learning is expected to empower students not solely as customers in the education process, but for life through the ability to live and work in the knowledge
He contends that learning happens through experimentation strategy. As per him learning is a steady procedure where the individual will make numerous endeavors to learn. The substance of this hypothesis is-as the trials increment, the mistakes diminish. This is conceivable in view of affiliation framed between sense impressions and driving forces to activity. Such an affiliation comes to be known as a "bond" or an 'association, since it is these bonds or associations which get to be reinforced or debilitated in making and bringing an end to of propensities.
Fundamental attribution error is when people based other people's characteristic on their personality and underestimate the power of external influences. People are very quick to believe in the worst of other people, but tend to attribute their own bad traits to external stimulus but failed to do the same for other people. There are many explanations that could explain the reason behind the behaviors of people that should take in consideration of other factors as well because people's mood often change because of what happens to them on a daily basis. Recently, I was driving home when I experienced something that was incredibly unusual. It was raining and I was near an intersection deciding if I should switch lanes to take a left.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM The study of motivation in relation to one’s level of achievement has been a topical issue in educational forums worldwide. Despite the theories, interpretations, and applications, man is still in pursuit of discovering ways of using the motivational concept to solve educational problems. Trying to define motivation is a little like trying to define psychology itself. Taking as a starting point the layman’s view of psychology as the study of ‘what makes people tick’, motivation is concerned with why people act and behave the way they do. According to Rubin and McNeil (1983), Motives are a special kind of cause which energize, direct and sustain a person’s behaviour (including hunger, thirst, sex and curiosity).
Introduction Attribution Theory has played a big part in social-psychological research. Unfortunately, the term attribution is confusing. According to one meaning, forming an attribution is making a dispositional/ personality inference from behavior; according to another meaning, forming an attribution is giving an explanation. The focus of this paper is on the comparison of Kelley’s covariation theory and Jones and Davis correspondent inference theory. Approaching from a perspective almost the same as that of Jones and Davis.
Cullough (1975) reading readiness is a many- sided affair, and the factors influencing readiness interact with each other in a variety of ways. Lack of reading readiness in first grade usually results from a combination of causes. Reading readiness means attainment of the level of development that enables a child to learn to read in regular classroom instruction by a competent teacher. Although it should not be forgotten that the concept of reading readiness is basic to the development of good reading ability at all levels from the kindergarten on, we shall limit ourselves here to discuss of its role in the elementary