The most notable achievements of the Pallava rulers were the rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram and the temples of Kanchipuram. The Chola, Hoyasala and Vijayanagar rulers also did remarkable job in the field of architecture. The temples at Thanjavur, Belur and Halebid bear testimony to the architectural excellence of the South Indian rulers. In north India, there developed a new a different style of architecture. This was called as the Nagara style architecture.
The Mughal Empire had different origins compared to the Ottoman Empire, especially when it comes to the influence for their creation. The Mughal Empire had no religious motivations when it came to establishing and expanding the empire. Babur only wanted to win back Ferghana, the city he had inherited at twelve years old, only to lose it two years later. He spent several years trying to win his city back but never succeeded. After the disappointing loss that would never allow him to return home, Babur decided to begin building his own empire in Northern India.
The Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan's incredible showstopper, may contrast positively and Edwin Lutyens' royal residence in New Delhi, yet after the demise of Aurangzeb large portions of the Mughal landmarks disintegrated; it took an English emissary to protect some of them from desolation. The Mughals fizzled on the grounds that they made little, if any, push to drag India out of the Middle Ages. The Mughal realm, composes Abraham Eraly, "falled path behind Europe, behind even China, Japan and Persia. There was not really any energy in the economy, meager soul of big business among the general population. In farming, industry and exchange, Indian practices were old.
INTRODUCTION The Ajuran Sultanate or Ajuran Empire was known as a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over the large parts of the Northeast Africa consists of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia and dominated the regional trade during the 5th to the 15th century during the era of Medieval Ages. Ajuran Sultanate was very well-known during 13th century until the late 17th century because of their strong centralized administration and has an aggressive military towards invaders. This empire also left an extensive architectural legacy, including castles, fortress building and pillar tombs fields attributed to the Ajuran engineers. Because of the theocratic nature of the Ajuran government, many peoples come from many regions in East Africa had converted to Islam. According to the history, the Ajuran Sultanate emerged and established by the House of Gareen and they were the one who ruling this empire until the 17th century.
The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت, translit. Mughliyah Salṭanat) or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry.  The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. 
THEORY OF SETTLEMENTS STRUCTURE OF SHAHJAHANABAD SHAHJAHANABAD or old Delhi is the heart of the city and it is considered to be the seventh city of Delhi. This city was built in 1639, by Mughal emperor, Shahjahan (1627- 57), who shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi. The site for the new capital in Delhi was ideally suited as a convergence point of land routes, being centrally located geographical. The site was situated on the western bank of river Yamuna where a natural projection formed a triangle with the land and the river. To ensure its prosperity, the site was placed on a high land and was bow shaped (kamukha).
The interplay of cultural influences of Iran and India is particularly noticeable in the form of visually significant objects such as miniatures, manuscripts, calligraphy, coinage, book binding, carpets, jewelry and pottery.11 The Mughal Empire has rightly been called a ‘cultural state.’12 Humayun was greatly impressed by Iranian culture and art during his stay in Iran where he spent most of his time in such pursuits. The restoration of the Mughal Empire after Humayun’s return from Iran established a tradition of migration from Iranian territories, which continued until the Muslim states of India could no longer offer prospects of employment. Iran contributed a good deal to the Indo-Muslim cultural heritage; its share among the immigrants was significant. Prof. Sukumar said that “the exile of Humayun in Iran, though humiliating and painful, was not altogether barren in its results.” 13 Humayun’s stay in Iran not only established diplomatic relationship between the Safawid and Mughal Courts, it also led to closer contact between India and Iran. During the Akbar’s reign, when the Mughal Empire was consolidated, a general immigration of nobles and generals as well as men of arts and letters from Iran deeply molded the Indo-Muslim civilization.
The Mughal Empire was one of the great dynastic powers of the medieval Islamic world and its nature has always been of captivating interest to historians of India and Europe alike. Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people and cultures was an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods of time. From the latter half of the sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Pakistan was also influence by this growing movement of modern architecture. After 65 years of independence Pakistan is still grappling with the nature and its existence as secular or religious and therefore its identity. Kamil Khan Mumtaz was one of the most influent figure in architectural education and disclosure in Pakistan after its creation in 1947.he tried to create both pragmatic and philosophical aspects of architecture. He trained in modern movement at Architectural Association (AA), London. His search was more to explorer the appropriate architectural idioms for Pakistan.
The Taj Mahal was a tremendous achievement by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan. It was made in the heart and capital of the Mughal empire, Agra. Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal emperor. He formed this tomb as a burial place and as a monument of remembrance for his lost love, his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Known as the “Jewel of India”, it acts as a symbol of his love for his wife.