It considers that human-beings have goals that may be supported or thwarted by activating events or agents (making the As). The person then reacts with something to the activating agent, either conscious or unconscious based on their belief system (B). In addition, they also experience the emotional and behavioural consequence of the activating agent (C). When the activating events result in pleasant reactions and it supports their goals and are incongruent with the belief system. However, when the activating events no longer support the goals of an individual, it can potentially cause disturbance in the belief system in a way congruent to it (rational).
Additionally, specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person. While on the other hand, there are parts of the impression formation process that are context dependent, individuals also tend to exhibit certain tendencies in forming impressions variety of situations. There is not one single implicit personality theory used, but different approaches the task of impression formation in his or her own unique way. Moreover, there are some components of implicit personality theories that are consistent across individuals, or within groups of similar individuals. These components are of particular interest to social psychologists because they have the potential to give insight into what impression one person will form of another (Millon, 2003).
Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985). In which, if this stability was disrupted then changes to their actions must occur in order for the dissonance created from their behaviors or attitudes to be restored. The uncomfortable feelings produced as a result of dissonance cause alteration in the person’s beliefs which aid in the relief of uncomfortable feelings created
This suggests that psychological factors, too, can be important. The psychological perspective emphasizes the role of basic psychological processes in the occurrence of mental abnormality. For instance, many psychologists believe that learning plays a key role in many disorders. The psychological perspective also emphasizes the role of cognitive factors in mental abnormality. For instance, many theories of depression suggest that long – lasting negative feelings often stem from faulty patterns of thoughts.
This exists when members of the group credit successes to their personalities, and failures to situational factors. Members of an in-group also tend to think of members of their group as better than outsiders, and they tend to lump outsiders together, while viewing members of the in-group as diverse and unique individuals. This type of error is also associated with the defense mechanism, rationalization. Rationalization protects self-esteem and self-concept so when confronted by success or failure, people tend to attribute achievement to their own qualities and skills while failures are blamed on other people or outside
The general attributional approach recognizes that humans try to make sense of their surroundings and themselves and that this sense-making activity is an important part of the social phenomena under asking questions and trying to find the truth. Attribution theories, very differently, are theories of more clearly stated or related. Even though explanations and feature guesses (trait) based on what you 've been told are occasionally related, they are clear/separate in many ways. Most theorist sort out explanations of success or failure using polarities of three characteristics that can help define personality: locus of control, stability and Controllability
On the basis of whether or not someone likes the topic they are learning about this also greatly influences the value people have towards knowledge. Do emotions allow us to see things the way they truly are? Or do they just hinder our perception of knowledge? I think that our intuition greatly influences our idea of knowledge, but in two different ways. On the one hand, we are prone to say that emotions do more or less determine the way we think about specific things, whereas reason would not be able
In this study, we may know either perfectionism among student can be positively affecting their self esteem or not. If the perfectionism can positively affect, level of self esteem may increased and if the perfectionism negatively affected, level of self esteem may decreased. Therefore, when we understand how perfectionism can affected the level of self esteem, we may more understand
Are humans morally responsible for their implicit biases? Afterwards, can humans change their implicit biases and control the effects of these attitudes on their explicit judgments and behavior? The overconfident bias is tendency people have when they are more confident in acting ethically. Generally, humans think that they are more ethical than their opponents, colleagues, peers. People often take ethical issues gently because of bias.
Perri and Richards and Zimmerman indicated in their study (as cited in Bandura n.d., p 256) that one of the factors that differentiate individuals who successfully regulate their emotions is they are able to regulate their behavior and motivation to achieve what they seek. Self-evaluative behaviors affect how much satisfaction people derive from what they do. Some forms of emotional self-regulation aimed to decrease the intensity of emotional response (Barkley, 2009). Whenever an individual foresee a situation, it tends to create unwanted emotional outcomes that can trigger inappropriate response in a given situation. Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, and Ric explained in their study (as cited in Barkley, 2009), that anticipating an emotional experience leads to a partial simulation of emotion that triggers similar emotion systems as those that become activated during the past